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Podcast Profile: Sadler's Lectures

podcast imageTwitter: @philosopher70 (followed by 245 philosophers)
Site: soundcloud.com/gregorybsadler
500 episodes
2020 to present
Average episode: 14 minutes
Open in Apple PodcastsRSS

Categories: Course-Style • Ethics • History of Philosophy • Life Philosophy

Podcaster's summary: I'm that YouTube Philosophy Guy! Find more than 2,000 videos in my main channel. Support my video and podcast work! https://www.patreon.com/sadler or https://www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM | | Learn more about this podcast channel - https://youtu.be/qRvL0gqlyrw and https://medium.com/gregory-b-sadler-ph-d/the-sadlers-lectures-podcast-56e18619c5aa | | Due to popular demand - and with the work underwritten by my Patreon supporters - I have started converting my videos into MP3 files listeners can listen to anywhere they want! | | Once I reach a higher level of support on Patreon, I plan to start creating original episodes in a new podcast series. Want to help me get that started? Become a supporter!

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List Updated: 2022-Aug-10 11:32 UTC. Episodes: 500. Feedback: @TrueSciPhi.

Episodes
2022-Aug-09 • 14 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Fraud, Judges, And False Witnesses - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussions in chapters 19, 20, and 21, which focus on matters of justice and injustice, in particular not engaging in fraud or false witness, and the importance of judges rendering just verdicts. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - ww...
2022-Aug-07 • 16 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Humility, Compunction, And Fear Of God
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion of humility, compunction of heart, and fear of God in chapters 10, 11, and 15. Each of these has to do with adopting proper perspective on oneself in relation to God and to one's own accomplishments, capacities, and actions To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direc...
2022-Aug-05 • 14 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Fasting, Almsgiving, And Chastity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussions in chapters 16, 17, and 18. These chapters discuss the importance of fasting, giving alms, and chastity for Christian ethics and life. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.b...
2022-Aug-04 • 15 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Confessions, Repentance, And Conversion - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion in chapters 12, 13, and 14 of the importance and effects of confession, repentance, and conversion of the heart. For each of these, Alcuin makes a case why one should choose them in the present, instead of deferring them to later on. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to mak...
2022-Aug-03 • 15 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Virtues from Peace To Patience - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion in chapters 6-9 of peace, mercy, remission/forgiveness, and patience. All of these have to do with our involvements with other people, particularly those who wrong us or those who we could show mercy towards. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, ...
2022-Aug-02 • 15 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Wisdom To Zeal Of Reading - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion in chapters 1-5, beginning with wisdom, going through the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity, and then finishing with "zeal of reading" (the scriptures). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonI...
2022-Aug-01 • 11 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - The Myth Of The Afterlife - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines the account of the afterlife which Socrates presents as a "likely story," a myth. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM ...
2022-Jul-31 • 18 minutes
Plato's Phaedo - Does The Soul Wear Out - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines one of the important sets of arguments for and against the immortality of the soul, those having to do with the question whether the soul could wear out over time. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so her...
2022-Jul-30 • 16 minutes
Plato's Phaedo - Is The Soul A Harmony? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines one of the important sets of arguments for and against the immortality of the soul, those having to do with the question whether the soul could be a harmony of the body and its elements To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribut...
2022-Jul-29 • 9 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - The Argument From Opposites - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines an argument Socrates provides there for the immortality of the soul -- a metaphysical argument from opposites, and processes of change. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO -...
2022-Jul-28 • 10 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Recollection And The Forms - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines discussion about the Platonic forms and the doctrine of recollection in that dialogue. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYd...
2022-Jul-27 • 17 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Misology And Misanthopy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines Socrates' seeming digression about the dangers of "misology" (hatred of arguments or reasoning), understood by way of analogy to misanthropy. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reas...
2022-Jul-25 • 13 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Suicide And Readiness For Death - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines Socrates' discussion of whether it is morally right or wrong to commit suicide -- a pressing issue, given that his impending execution requires him to drink poisonous hemlock. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you c...
2022-Jul-22 • 9 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - The Body As Prison To The Soul - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines Socrates' contention that the body is a prison for the soul, contaminating it with materiality To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.co...
2022-Jul-21 • 14 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Philosophical Temperance And Courage - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines Socrates' discussion of the nature of the virtues of temperance and courage. He takes these virtues to be genuine only in the case of the philosopher, who have the right motivations and for whom these virtues are structured by wisdom To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com...
2022-Jul-19 • 11 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Philosophy As Preparation For Death - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines the meaning of Socrates' assertion that "Philosophy is a preparation for death" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM Yo...
2022-Jul-18 • 16 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - The Unity Of Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussions in chapter 13 of the unity of Truth underlying the multiple modes of truth analyzed throughout the work To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so...
2022-Jul-17 • 19 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Defining Justice In The Will - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion of justice in the will as truth or rectitude. The specifically moral conception of justice that deserves praise or blame is a matter of willing what one ought, because one ought, and in order to maintain that very rectitude, which allows An...
2022-Jul-15 • 13 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Actions As Significative Of Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 9 of how actions - including those of willing and thinking - are also significative, and thereby have an additional manner of being truthful or false/lying To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadl...
2022-Jul-14 • 11 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Truth In The Being Of Things And Supreme Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussions in chapter 7 and 10 of the supreme truth, and of the truth in the being (essentia) or existence (existentia) of things, including the causal relations between these and truth in other things. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon s...
2022-Jul-13 • 10 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Truth In The Senses And Judgement - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 6 of truth and falsity "in the exterior senses". Anselm's view is that in cases when we might say that the senses are deceiving us, it is really the judgement (opinio) of the mind that is deceiving us. To support my ongoing work...
2022-Jul-12 • 18 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Truth In The Will And Action - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on truth and falsity as they exist in the will and in action. This involves a normativity built into and evaluating both of them, a "what one ought to do" or a "what it was made for". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadl...
2022-Jul-11 • 13 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Truth In Signification And Thought - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussions of truth in signification or statement, and truth in thought or judgement found in chapters 2 and 3 of the work. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ...
2022-Jul-10 • 12 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Multiple Modes Of Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on the multiple modes of truth that Anselm and his student will range over and analyze in their dialogue. These include truth in signification, thought, the will, action, the being of things, and the senses, and the Supreme Truth. To support my ongoing wor...
2022-Jul-08 • 20 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Human Happiness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 10 that centers upon the classic question of what human happiness consists in. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosop...
2022-Jul-06 • 11 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Memory And The Emotions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion of how emotions figure into human memory in book 10. It also discusses the Stoic theory of the emotions or passions, which Augustine qualifiedly incorporates To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACo...
2022-Jul-05 • 13 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - The Power Of Memory - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 10 of the power, capacity, and range of human memory. He also examines the different ways in which things are retained in memory. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacof...
2022-Jul-03 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Why Engage In Confessions? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his book 10 discussion centering on why he has been engaging in the process of confessions, which seems to be a reflective practice of speaking to God. He maintains that they have value not only for himself but also for readers. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ...
2022-Jul-01 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - The Divided Will - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion of the ways in which a person's will can be divided between different objects and motives, so that, even though there is one single faculty of will, a person can experience wanting to do or choose something and nevertheless find him or herself choosing or doing something else. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patre...
2022-Jun-29 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Ponticianus' Story And Self-Examination - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on the story that Ponticanius relates of two of his friends who were converted from secular to monastic life though their reading of the Life of St. Anthony, and the effects that this story has on Augustine, who is provoked to self-examination as he listens. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make...
2022-Jun-28 • 16 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Following Or Breaking God's Laws - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion about how to understand what seems to be contradictions in Jewish and Christian scriptures about what it is that God requires or commands of people To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www...
2022-Jun-26 • 10 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Getting Metaphysics of God And Evil Wrong - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion of the nature of evil, and the problem of understanding how, given the existence of God, there could be evil in the universe in book 7. By Augustine's own admission, he was approaching the question of the origin or cause of evil in some mistaken ways, and he reviews both the mistaken attempts and some of the assumptions underlying them, ...
2022-Jun-25 • 18 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Finding Wisdom In Scriptures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his changing viewpoint towards Jewish and Christian sacred scriptures. At first, Augustine viewed them as crude and childish, but over time came to view them as containing considerable wisdom To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reas...
2022-Jun-23 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Philosophy And Christianity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on how Augustine sought out wisdom from the resources ancient pagan philosophy had to offer situating them later within a Christian framework that partly overlapped with those resources but also surpassed them. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www....
2022-Jun-22 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Manicheism And Faustus - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his engagement with the Gnostic religion of Manichaeism, his dissatisfaction with the answers to important philosophical questions that they provided, and his disappointed hopes in their bishop Faustus To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypa...
2022-Jun-20 • 18 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Seeking Wisdom And Answers - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on how, once his desire for wisdom was aroused by reading Cicero's work, the Hortentius, Augustine sought out wisdom, what sources of possible wisdom he examined, and where he was able to find it To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reaso...
2022-Jun-19 • 10 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - The Pear Tree And Evil - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his self-examination as he recalls the incident of the Pear Tree in book 2. This leads Augustine to reflect upon the nature of human motivation - particularly the motivations that explain wrong or evil actions and choices. In trying to get to the roots of the Pear Tree incident, he finds that his action ultimately had to be explained by saying that he ...
2022-Jun-18 • 20 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Love, Loss, And Grief - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his experience with and reflections upon the grief he felt upon the death of a close friend. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy video...
2022-Jun-17 • 15 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Loving Shows And The Theater - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion starting in book 3 of his love for shows and spectacles, and his ruminations on what it is that he loves about them, given that the matters depicted are the miseries of other people. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/...
2022-Jun-16 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Study And Learning In Boyhood - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his education or miseducation during his childhood. Augustine discusses the lessons he learned, many of which were not the most productive To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quY...
2022-Jun-15 • 15 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - From Infancy To Speech - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on book 1, where Augustine describes and examines his infancy and the transition from infancy to speech. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philoso...
2022-Jun-14 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Where Can God Be? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on the questions that he begins the work by asking himself (and God), having to do with where God can be, and whether or not God can be contained in any place or person. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee ...
2022-Jun-13 • 12 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 7 - The Philosopher's Return To The Cave - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 7. Specifically it examines his famous Allegory of the Cave set out early in book 7. After being liberated from the cave and gradually habituated to see real things in daylight, and eventually the source of light in the sun, as opposed to the shadows of the cave, the prisoner determines to return to the cave out of a sense of pity or compassion for his fellow prisoners. Because his eyes are now hab...
2022-Jun-12 • 15 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 7 - The Allegory Of The Cave - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 7. Specifically it examines his famous Allegory of the Cave set out early in book 7. In this allegory, prisoners are confined within an underground dwelling, and believe that reality is the images and sounds projected in front of them. One of the prisoners is freed of his chains and brought up into the sunlit world above. After habituation, he becomes able to fully use his power of sight to see re...
2022-Jun-10 • 13 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 6 - The Likeness Between The Sun And The Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 6. Specifically it examines his discussion in the end of book 6 about the likeness or analogy between the Form of the Good and the Sun, which he calls the "offspring" of the Good. Both the Good and the Sun make it possible for the human being to apprehend matters, in the case of the Sun, for vision to apprehend visible objects, in the case of the Good, for the soul to recognize and know the Forms. ...
2022-Jun-09 • 19 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 6 - The Divided Line, Truth, And The Faculties - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 6. Specifically it examines his discussion in the end of book 6 of the "Divided Line". This analogy is used to arrange the matters human beings can grasp and (in some cases) develop knowledge about, ranging from those that posses the least truth and being to those that possess the most. The four parts of the line include: 1. he domain of shadows, reflections, and other things of that sort; 2. th...
2022-Jun-08 • 20 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Diogenes' Frankness Of Speech - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the depiction of the Cynic philosopher Diogenes within Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers, book 6 It focuses specifically on Diogenes' frankness of speech (parrhesia), its purpose and value, with reference to a lot of examples. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.co...
2022-Jun-07 • 15 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Diogenes' Cynical Mode Of Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the depiction of the Cynic philosopher Diogenes within Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers, book 6 It focuses specifically on Diogenes' ways of living, thinking, and interacting with others and the world, embodying his Cynic moral philosophy To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - w...
2022-Jun-07 • 14 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Antisthenes On Virtue And Wisdom - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the depiction of the Cynic philosopher Antisthenes within Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers, book 6 It focuses specifically on what Antisthenes' beliefs, teachings, and actions bearing upon the virtues and wisdom. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisad...
2022-Jun-05 • 14 minutes
Xenophon, Symposium - Antisthenes On Wealth, Need, And Satisfaction - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient historian, military commander, and student of philosophy, Xenophon's Symposium It focuses specifically on the discourses that Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic school gives in that work, in which he details his beliefs and way of life. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel -...
2022-Jun-03 • 18 minutes
Lucian of Samosata, The Cynic - Need, Sufficiency, And Satisfaction
This lecture discusses the ancient writer and satirist Lucian of Samosata's short work, The Cynic. It focuses specifically on his presentation of arguments for and against the Cynic school of philosophy, allowing the Cynic to make his case to the narrator and the reader To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - ww...
2022-Jun-02 • 14 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Willing What God Wills - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions of the interrelation between the human and the divine, the divine "will", and willing what God or the divine wills. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadle...
2022-Jun-01 • 15 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - The Profession Of A Stoic Philosopher - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions bearing on the profession of the Stoic philosopher. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-May-31 • 14 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Social Intercourse And Engagements - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions of interacting with people in social settings and relations. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-May-29 • 14 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Not Wanting Pity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions stemming from the topic of pity and people who become upset at being pitied (or imagining themselves being pitied) by others To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user...
2022-May-27 • 15 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Lust And Adultery - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions about sexual desire or lust, and in particular the issue of adultery To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NO...
2022-May-26 • 14 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Attention Or Mindfulness (Prosokhē) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions of prosokhes - mindfulness or attention/attentiveness - in book 4 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKn...
2022-May-24 • 11 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Stoic Cosmopolitanism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions of the conception of Cosmopolitanism, that is, being a citizen of the world or the universe. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' ...
2022-May-23 • 11 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - False Peace And Leisure As Ends - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions about making peace or leisure the end of one's choices in ways that compromise other key values. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictet...
2022-May-23 • 10 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Socrates As A Stoic Sage - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions bearing on Socrates as a sage (i.e. wise person) and exemplar for Stoicism. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn...
2022-May-21 • 13 minutes
Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, Ch. 11 - Genes And Memes
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th-21st century evolutionary biologist and essayist Richard Dawkins' book The Selfish Gene. It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 11 focused on the analogies and relations between genes and memes To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy v...
2022-May-20 • 17 minutes
Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, Ch. 11 - The Notion Of A Meme
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th-21st century evolutionary biologist and essayist Richard Dawkins' book The Selfish Gene. It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 11 focused on what a "meme" is as a unit of cultural transmission, replication, and evolution. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You ca...
2022-May-19 • 14 minutes
Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, Ch. 11 - Darwinism And Cultural Transmission
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th-21st century evolutionary biologist and essayist Richard Dawkins' book The Selfish Gene. It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 11 focused on the importance of culture for human beings, and how cultural transmission and evolution takes place To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.co...
2022-May-18 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - Peace As Universally Desired - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 19 focused on a universal desire for peace in living beings, specifically among human beings. Augustine views peace as one dimension of the supreme good or final end for human beings, and even the deficient, imperfect, corrupt modes of peace that human beings do desire are in some respect good. To support my ongoing work, go to ...
2022-May-16 • 15 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - The Four Circles Of Relationship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 19 arguing that we do not find any lasting peace or happiness in this life. In the course of this discussion, he sets out four concentric circles of relationships that we human being can have. The first of these is most intimate, and includes the family or household, and our friendships. The second of these is our political or ...
2022-May-15 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - Why Virtues Are Not The Supreme Good
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 19 bearing on whether the virtues - prudence, justice, courage, and temperance - are the supreme good for human beings or whether they are instead something that can lead us towards the supreme good and happiness. In examining this, Augustine is criticizing ancient pagan virtue ethics, in particular those of the Stoics, but al...
2022-May-14 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - The Supreme Good And The Present Life
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 19 focused on the present life's prospects for human happiness and enjoying the supreme good or final end for human beings. As rational beings, our nature and our desires cannot be entirely fulfilled by the things and goods of this life. Augustine examines this matter in terms of the vulnerability of the body and the soul, the s...
2022-May-13 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - Philosophical Sects And The Supreme Good
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion at the beginning of book 19, setting out a vast number of philosophical "sects", based on a variety of distinctions. This classification is taken from Marcus Varro's now-lost work, De Philosophia, and has to do with what each sect thinks human beings desire, how they vide virtue, whether they adopt stances from Academic skepticism or Cyn...
2022-May-11 • 12 minutes
Prudentius, Psychomachia - The Virtues Of Faith And Concord - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the early Medieval poet Prudentius, the Psychomachia, or the battle for the soul It focuses specifically on the contributions made near the end of the poem by two virtues in particular, Faith and Concord. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy v...
2022-May-10 • 14 minutes
Prudentius, Psychomachia - Combatting Luxury And Greed - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the early Medieval poet Prudentius, the Psychomachia, or the battle for the soul It focuses specifically on the more difficult battles against two vices in particular - Luxury/Indulgence (Luxuria) and Greed (Avaritia) - which seem to be winning the battle for the vices over the virtues. They are defeated by Sobriety (Sobrietas) and by a combination of Reason (Ratio) and Good Works (Operatio) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.c...
2022-May-09 • 14 minutes
Prudentius, Psychomachia - First Combats Of Virtues And Vices - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the early Medieval poet Prudentius, the Psychomachia, or the battle for the soul It focuses specifically on the first combats in this battle, those of Faith vs. Worship of the Old Gods, Chastity vs Lust, Patience vs Wrath, and Pride vs Humility To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quY...
2022-May-07 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Can One Do Injustice To Oneself? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the question he poses and resolves there: is it possible for a person to be unjust, or to do injustice, to him or herself? To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACo...
2022-May-06 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Justice As Equity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the sort of justice which he picks out as "equity" or "equitableness", which he notes is a kind of correction of legal justice. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyM...
2022-May-05 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Particular Justice In Reciprocity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and and examines the particular sort of justice which he picks out as "reciprocity," (in Greek, antipeponthos -- "suffering in return"). This includes not only "poetic justice," i.e. when a person suffers what they have inflicted upon others, but also economic exchange of goods and services. To support my ongoing wo...
2022-May-04 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Particular Justice In Rectification - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the sort of particular justice which he picks out as "justice in rectification" or "rectificatory justice" -- how justice is restored when one party has gotten (or taken) too much, and the other party too little. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to...
2022-May-02 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Particular Justice In Distribution - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the sort of particular justice which he picks out as "justice in distribution," also called "commutative" or "distributive justice". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at...
2022-May-01 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Legal Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the sort of justice which he picks out as "legal justice" or "law-abidingness". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You c...
2022-Apr-30 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Justice As Complete Virtue - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, the sort of justice which he picks out as "complete virtue", as virtue practiced not just in relation to oneself, but in relation to others (pros allon). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonI...
2022-Apr-28 • 21 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Six Types Of Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, where Aristotle says that "justice is an equivocal term", meaning that there are multiple senses of the term "justice". A careful analysis of Aristotle's text reveals that there are actually six main conceptions of justice discussed by him there: legal justice, justice as complete virtue, distributive justice, cor...
2022-Apr-27 • 12 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork - The Limits Of Practical Philosophy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work of ethics, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically it examines his discussion of the limits of practical philosophy - and the practical use of reason - towards the end of that work. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM Y...
2022-Apr-23 • 11 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork - The Dialectic Of Reason - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work of ethics, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically it examines his discussion of what he terms a "dialectic" of reason near the end of the work. this dialectic has to do with the freedom of the human rational will - which is an idea of reason - and the law-bound necessity of nature - which is a concept of the understanding. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler ...
2022-Apr-22 • 10 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork - Freedom Of The Will - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work of ethics, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically it examines Kant's discussion of the freedom of the will. In his view, the will is a type of causality that belongs to living rational beings, and freedom is a property of that causality, involving being able to determine or effect matters independently of other causes and physical (or psycho-social) laws. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreo...
2022-Apr-21 • 10 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork - The 3rd Formulation Of The Categorical Imperative - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work of ethics, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically it examines To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Kant's G...
2022-Apr-20 • 16 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Power Relations And Strategy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on the section "Relations of Power and Relations of Strategy", in which Foucault distinguishes three different senses of the term "strategy" and discusses how they apply to power relations To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reason...
2022-Apr-19 • 17 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Specificity Of Power Relations - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on the section "What Constitutes The Specificity Of Power Relations?" in which Foucault notes that power relations, while they may include violence or consent, are really something different, involving "action upon action", or "acting upon the possibilities of action of other people". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon....
2022-Apr-18 • 16 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - The How Of Power Relations - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on why he thinks that it is important to focus on the "How" of power relations, rather than just the "What" and the "Why". He also distinguishes objective capacities from communicative/sign systems, and power relations, and discusses how they interconnect with each other. He finishes with the notion of "disciplines" as blocks of these three, and what...
2022-Apr-16 • 20 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Power Relations And Resistance - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on his decision to focus upon human beings' resistances to power as ways to understand better how power works and how power-relations are constituted and structured. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee...
2022-Apr-14 • 17 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Pastoral Power - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on he type of power relations that he calls "pastoral power", including four main characteristics of it: orientation towards salvation; oblative and sacrificial exercise of power; focus upon the individual; aiming at to knowledge of the soul. Foucault also discusses how pastoral power shifts out of ecclesial settings into political and secular setti...
2022-Apr-13 • 16 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Domination, Exploitation, Subjection - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on the distinction he makes between three types of power relations, those of domination, exploitation, and subjection. These intersect with each other, and are typically not found in isolation from each other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here ...
2022-Apr-12 • 14 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Analysis Of Power Relations - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on the section "How Is One To Analyze The Power Relationship", in which Foucault argues that the primary focus cannot be placed upon institutions or the political sphere. Instead, they need to be examined in terms of power-relations. Foucault also suggests five lines of analysis: differentiations, objectives, instrumental modes, forms of institutiona...
2022-Apr-11 • 16 minutes
George Dickie, What Is Anti-Art? - Anti-Art And The Artworld
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher of art, George Dickie's article "What Is Anti-Art?" Specifically it examines his notion of anti-art, the four types of anti-art Dickie identifies, and the relation between anti-art, art, and the "artworld". You can get Dickie's work, Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional Analysis, here - https://amzn.to/2NLIRdc To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ca...
2022-Apr-10 • 15 minutes
George Dickie, What Is Art? - The Concept of the Artworld - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher of art, George Dickie's article "What Is Art? An Institutional Analysis". Specifically it examines his discussion of one of the main concepts to his analysis, what - following Arthur Danto - he terms "the artworld". You can get Dickie's work, Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional Analysis, here - https://amzn.to/2NLIRdc To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contributio...
2022-Apr-08 • 15 minutes
George Dickie, What Is Art? - The Institutional Definition Of Work Of Art - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher of art, George Dickie's article "What Is Art? An Institutional Analysis". Specifically it examines Dickie's attempt to provide a new "institutional" definition of "work of art". This is meant to be a classificatory, rather than evaluative definition, and makes reference to his conception of the "artworld". You can get Dickie's work, Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional Analysis, here - https://amzn.to/2NLIRdc To support my ongoing wor...
2022-Apr-07 • 15 minutes
George Dickie, What Is Art? - Attempts To Define Art - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher of art, George Dickie's article "What Is Art? An Institutional Analysis". Specifically it examines the three phases he identifies in the history of attempts to define art. Phase 1 includes the imitative and expressive theories, which identify the essence of art with some characteristic that turns out not to be essential. Phase 2 includes positions critical of the notion of defining art. Phase 3 includes his institutional theory of art. You...
2022-Apr-05 • 11 minutes
George Dickie, What Is Art? - Three Senses Of "Work Of Art" - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher of art, George Dickie's article "What Is Art? An Institutional Analysis". Specifically it examines the distinction he makes between three senses of "work of art: the primary or classificatory, the secondary or derivative, and the evaluative. You can get Dickie's work, Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional Analysis, here - https://amzn.to/2NLIRdc To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like t...
2022-Apr-04 • 13 minutes
Cicero On The Ends Book 3 - What Is In Accordance With Nature - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 3 about the Stoic notion of what is in accordance with, or harmonizes with, nature. This concept plays a major role in Stoic Ethics. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can...
2022-Apr-03 • 12 minutes
Cicero On The Ends Book 3 - Appropriate Acts Or Duties - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 3 about appropriate acts or duties (officia in Latin). These strictly speaking are not morally right or good in themselves, but can be in accordance with moral virtue. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to ...
2022-Apr-02 • 12 minutes
Cicero On The Ends Book 3 - Virtue And The Preferred Indifferents - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 3 about an issue in Stoic moral theory that is sometimes confusing for those studying Stoic ethics: how do these two ranges of value fit into each other - the virtues, which Stoics regard as the good, and the preferred indifferents, which are not strictly speaki...
2022-Apr-01 • 15 minutes
Cicero On The Ends Book 3 - Indifferents Preferred, Rejected, & Neutral - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 3 focused on the Stoic conception of "indifferents" (adiaphora), which are neither good nor bad. These encompass matters such as life and death, health and disease, wealth and poverty, and pain and pleasure. None of these make a significant contribution to happ...
2022-Mar-30 • 15 minutes
Cicero On The Ends Book 3 - Virtue As The Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 3 about the Stoic conception of virtue or moral rectitude as the good. The Stoics adopted the scheme of the cardinal virtues - Wisdom, Justice, Temperance, and Courage. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like t...
2022-Mar-29 • 13 minutes
Cicero On The Ends Book 3 - Primary Impulses Of Human Nature - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 3 about what he calls the "primary impulses" or principles of human nature, present from infancy onward. These involve self-perception and affection, a desire to continue life and for the integrity of one's body. These plan an important role in Stoic ethics, as...
2022-Mar-28 • 16 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Five Ways Of Demonstrating God's Existence - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, q. 2. It focuses upon his discussion in article 3, which sets out the famous "Five Ways," each of which is a separate argument for the existence of God, conceived in some specific manner. Each of these is intended to be an a posteriori argument The first way focuses on motion or change, and argues that God is the Prime Mover. The second way foc...
2022-Mar-27 • 15 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Can God's Existence Be Demonstrated? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, q. 2. It focuses upon his discussion in article 2, bearing on whether God's existence can be proven or demonstrated by rational means at all. He considers several challenges to the project of arguing for God's existence. These include the notion that one should should just believe "by faith" and the idea that human beings would not be able to de...
2022-Mar-26 • 13 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Is "God Exists" Self-Evident? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, q. 2. It focuses upon on his discussion in article 1 about whether God's existence (Deus esse) is "self-evident" (per se nota) or not. In the process of arguing that God's existence is not self-evident to us, he discusses the desire for human happiness, and what he takes to be the weak points of St. Anselm's ontological argument for the existence...
2022-Mar-25 • 22 minutes
Albert Camus, The Myth Of Sisyphus - Freedom In The Absurd - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, and essayist Albert Camus' work The Myth of Sisyphus Specifically it examines his discussion in the section "Absurd Freedom" about why the traditional metaphysical conception of freedom isn't relevant to an absurdist viewpoint, but the experience of freedom in thought and action is. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.pa...
2022-Mar-24 • 23 minutes
Albert Camus, The Myth Of Sisyphus - Hope And The Absurd In Kafka - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, and essayist Albert Camus' work The Myth of Sisyphus Specifically it examines his discussion of Kafka's work, found in an appendix to the text. He considers Kafka to on the one hand be a writer whose stories and novels do articulate the absurd, but on the other hand, to be an existentialist who ends up deifying the absurd and indulging in hope. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd ...
2022-Mar-23 • 21 minutes
Albert Camus, The Myth Of Sisyphus - An Ethics Of Quantity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, and essayist Albert Camus' work The Myth of Sisyphus Specifically it examines his discussion of one of the implications of consciousness of the absurd, i.e, a ethics of quantity, where the focus is not on the "best living" but the "most living", and on the "quantity and variety of the experiences" a person has been able to have". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a...
2022-Mar-22 • 14 minutes
Cicero, On The Ends Book 1 - Epicurean Friendship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 1 about Epicureans' views on friendship, pleasure, and usefulness To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buym...
2022-Mar-21 • 11 minutes
Cicero, On The Ends Book 1 - Temperance, Desires, And Pleasures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 1 about the Epicurean evaluation of the virtues as only instrumentally good. Here we focus on the virtue of temperance, which concerns a range of pleasures and desires, especially but not limited to those of food, intoxication, and sexual activity. To support m...
2022-Mar-20 • 10 minutes
Cicero, On The Ends Book 1 - Courage, Desires, And Pleasures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 1 about the Epicurean evaluation of the virtues as only instrumentally good. Here we focus on the virtue of courage, which helps its possessor deal with fears, particularly those concerning death and those concerning bodily and mental pains. To support my ongoi...
2022-Mar-19 • 12 minutes
Cicero, On The Ends Book 1 - Justice, Desires, And Pleasures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 1 about the Epicurean evaluation of the virtues as only instrumentally good. Here we focus on the virtue of justice. Epicureans value justice partly for instrumental reasons, like keeping oneself from getting into trouble, or fearing that one's unjust actions w...
2022-Mar-18 • 10 minutes
Cicero, On The Ends Book 1 - Wisdom, Desires, And Pleasures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 1 about the Epicurean evaluation of the virtues as only instrumentally good. Here we focus on the virtue of wisdom, deeded in order for a person to rightly understand and to choose between what is good and what is bad. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patr...
2022-Mar-17 • 14 minutes
Cicero, On The Ends Book 1 - Mental And Bodily Pleasures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends, which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 1 about the distinction the Epicureans make between mental and bodily pleasures. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACo...
2022-Mar-16 • 10 minutes
Cicero, On The Ends Book 1 - Pleasure, Pain, and Moral Virtue - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends , which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 1 about how Epicureans view virtue and vice. For them, virtue is not something to be desired or valued for its own sake, but rather for the pleasure it produces or provides, or for the pain it alleviates or prevents. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreo...
2022-Mar-15 • 12 minutes
Cicero On The Ends Book 1 - Pleasure And Removal Of Pain
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends , which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines on his discussion in book 1 about two different conceptions of pleasure that the Epicureans distinguished - active or moving pleasures, and static pleasures resulting from the absence of pain. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like t...
2022-Mar-14 • 11 minutes
Cicero, On The Ends Book 1 - Pleasure As The Basis for Ethics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On The Ends , which discusses problems and perspectives on happiness, ethics, and human nature Specifically it examines his discussion in book 1 about the Epicurean philosophy, and its central contention that pleasure is the ultimate good for human beings, and pain the ultimate evil. Considerations about pleasure and pain provide the basis for practical reasoning for Epicureans To support my ongoing...
2022-Mar-13 • 14 minutes
A J Ayer Language, Truth, And Logic - Moving From Grammar To Metaphysics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically on his assertion that nonsense in philosophy gets generated by mistakenly moving from grammar to metaphysics. He thinks this is the case for substance, being, and other metaphysical concepts. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at...
2022-Mar-13 • 13 minutes
A J Ayer Language, Truth, And Logic - Examples Of Philosophical Nonsense - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically on the examples that he provides in chapter 1 of philosophical positions, beliefs, or assertions he calls nonsense. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philos...
2022-Mar-11 • 15 minutes
A J Ayer Language, Truth, And Logic - Empirical Propositions, Tautologies, And Nonsense
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically on a central distinction running through his approach, i.e. between empirical/experiential propositions or statements, tautologies, and what Ayer takes to be literally nonsense. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee -...
2022-Mar-10 • 15 minutes
A J Ayer Language, Truth, And Logic - The Criterion Of Verifiability - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically on what he terms the "criterion of verifiability", which determines whether a statement, proposition, or expression has literal significance or not, and what that would be. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www....
2022-Mar-08 • 11 minutes
A J Ayer Language, Truth, And Logic - Kant's Vs Ayer's Critiques Of Metaphysics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically on Ayer's interpretation of Immanuel Kant's critique of metaphysics, and Ayer's distinction between his and Kant's positions. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1...
2022-Mar-06 • 13 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Divine Word As Utterance And Essence - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of the divine utterance (locutio) or word (verbum) discussed in chapters 29-32 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel -...
2022-Mar-05 • 12 minutes
Anselm Monologion - The Word's Expression of Created Being - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of the Word's (verbum) relation to the created beings that it expresses. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.y...
2022-Mar-02 • 11 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Divine Substance And Other Substances - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the relationship and distinction between the divine substance and other (created) substances discussed in chapters 25-27 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy vid...
2022-Mar-01 • 14 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Divine Ubiquity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of divine ubiquity, i.e. God being everywhere, in every place - in chapters 20-23. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube chann...
2022-Feb-27 • 20 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Divine Eternity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of divine eternity - in chapters 18-24. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purcha...
2022-Feb-24 • 9 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Divine Simplicity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of divine simplicity - despite what appears to be a multiplicity of divine attributes - in chapter 17. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in m...
2022-Feb-24 • 16 minutes
Anselm Monologion - What Can Be Affirmed Of The Divine - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of what can be affirmed substantially of the divine substance, or God, in chapters 15 and 16 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main You...
2022-Feb-21 • 12 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Things Existing In The Divine Word - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on his treatment of created things (pre)existence in the divine word or reason. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube...
2022-Feb-19 • 11 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Three Kinds Of Expression - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on his distinction between three kinds of expression (locutio) in ch. 10 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/us...
2022-Feb-18 • 12 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Creation Ex Nihilo - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on his treatment of the doctrine of creation ex nihilo (out of nothing) in chapter 8. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.y...
2022-Feb-17 • 14 minutes
Anselm Monologion - The Supreme Beings Existence Per Se - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on discusses his treatment in chapters 5 and 6 of the Supreme Being's existence per se (through itself) and ex se (from itself) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy...
2022-Feb-15 • 9 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Arguing To The Supreme Being - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on his argument in chapter 3 for the existence of a Supreme Being, which is the cause of the being of other beings To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my...
2022-Feb-13 • 13 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Arguing To The Supreme Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on his argument for God's existence in ch. 1, in which he argues to the existence of a supreme good. I also briefly discuss the short chapter 2, which has to do with supreme greatness. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buy...
2022-Feb-13 • 13 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Degrees Of Being - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion, and focuses on the doctrine of degrees of being that plays a central role in his work. According to this broadly Platonic doctrine, there are gradations of being, going from bare being to living being, to sentient being, to rational being. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal...
2022-Feb-09 • 13 minutes
Anselm of Canterbury, Monologion - The Doctrine Of Participation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion, and focuses on the platonic doctrine of participation that plays an important role in the arguments and the general worldview of the work. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy ...
2022-Feb-08 • 17 minutes
Gilles Deleuze, Bartleby, Or The Formula - Pragmatism And Philosophy
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and critic, Giles Deleuze's essay,"Bartleby, Or The Formula", found in his Essays Critical and Clinical. Deleuze's essay examines Herman Melville's short story "Bartleby The Scrivner". This lecture focuses specifically on Deleuze's discussion of Pragmatism as a distinctively American (but not stereotypically American) perspective. He ties his notion of Pragmatism not just to philosophy but also to literature, and reads it back into Trance...
2022-Feb-06 • 23 minutes
Gilles Deleuze, Bartleby, Or The Formula - Melevillian Psychiatry
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and critic, Giles Deleuze's essay,"Bartleby, Or The Formula", found in his Essays Critical and Clinical. Deleuze's essay examines Herman Melville's short story "Bartleby The Scrivner". This lecture focuses specifically on what Deleuze calls "Melvillian psychiatry" in the essay, distinguishing three main types of characters Melville's works center upon - demoniacal monomaniacs, angelic hypochondriacs, and "prophets" who witness to them as ...
2022-Feb-03 • 14 minutes
Gilles Deleuze, Bartleby, Or The Formula - Characters And Originals
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and critic, Giles Deleuze's essay,"Bartleby, Or The Formula", found in his Essays Critical and Clinical. Deleuze's essay examines Herman Melville's short story "Bartleby The Scrivner". This lecture focuses specifically on the notions of primary and secondary nature Deleuze makes central to interpretation of Melville, which then bears upon the three main types of characters: demonic megalomaniacs (Ahab, Clagart), angelic hypochondriacs (Ba...
2022-Feb-01 • 16 minutes
Gilles Deleuze, Bartleby, Or The Formula - The Formula "I Would Prefer Not To"
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and critic, Giles Deleuze's essay,"Bartleby, Or The Formula", found in his Essays Critical and Clinical. Deleuze's essay examines Herman Melville's short story "Bartleby The Scrivner". This lecture focuses specifically on the formula "I would prefer not to", said by Bartleby in the story and analyzed by Deleuze in terms of agrammaticality, its effects, and a logic of preference and negativism. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon...
2022-Jan-31 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, The Politics book 1 - Is Unlimited Acquisition Of Wealth Good? - Sadler's Lecture
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Politics Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 1 about whether unlimited acquisition of wealth is something good and to be aimed at. His view is that such unlimited acquisition represents a mistaken way of understanding wealth and its purposes, and thereby a mistaken set of priorities. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct co...
2022-Jan-30 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, The Politics book 1 - Acquisition, Wealth, And Household Management - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Politics Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 1 about whether the art of acquiring wealth or possessions (kremastike) is the same as, or involved with the art of household management (oikonomike). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymea...
2022-Jan-27 • 16 minutes
Aristotle, The Politics book 1 - Natural And Unnatural Slavery - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Politics Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 1 bearing on slavery, and whether it is simply unnatural and therefore unjust, or whether in some cases it is natural. Aristotle argues that there are some people who are "natural slaves", but this class is smaller in his work than the much wider extension of those who would later use Aristotle to justify slavery in the Americas lent that concept. ...
2022-Jan-26 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Politics Book 1 - From The Family To The City State - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Politics Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 1 which traces out the development of human communities from the household or family (oikos) all the way up to the political community or city state (polis). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www...
2022-Jan-24 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, The Politics book 1 - Speech, Reason, And Moral Values - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Politics Specifically it focuses on his passage early on in book 1 in which he discusses the interrelation between the human capacity for speech and reason (logos) and our perception, communication, and sharing of moral values, such as the good and the bad, the just and the unjust, the useful and the harmful. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a...
2022-Jan-23 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, The Politics book 1 - Four Relations Of Rulership - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Politics Specifically it focuses on his distinction early on in book 1 between four different modes of rule, i.e. the relationship between ruler and subject. The include political, monarchical, household, and despotic rulership Each of these is a distinctive mode, and should not be confused with other modes, according to Aristotle. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler...
2022-Jan-20 • 19 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - Human Creation Of Gods - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on his views near the end of the second essay, where he provides an account for the development of gods within human cultures. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - https://www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You... ca...
2022-Jan-19 • 21 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - The Origin and Purposes Of Punishment - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on the theory of punishment he articulates there, distinguishing between the origins and the later purposes of punishment. It turns out that there is no one single "meaning" of punishment, with the implication that any of the main contemporary theories that stress one primary meaning, goal, or function of punishment (retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, reha...
2022-Jan-18 • 15 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - The Development Of Bad Conscience - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on how what he terms "the bad conscience" comes into being. This development is a complex process spurred by the repression of instincts on the part of the strong. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - https://www...
2022-Jan-17 • 23 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - Debtor, Creditor, And Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on his discussion early on in essay 2 about the creditor-debtor relation and its complicated connection with notions of justice. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - https://www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You... ...
2022-Jan-16 • 12 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - Rome Vs Judea - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on chapters 16 and 17 of the first essay, where he identifies the two modes of valuation with Rome and Judea and claims that they have been locked in a millennia-long struggle with each other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or a...
2022-Jan-15 • 12 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - Strength, Will, Being, And Act - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on chapter 13 of the first essay, where he sets out some of his reflections about force or strength, willing, being, action, potentiality, and reality, and how he feels they are misapplied to the strong/good by the bad/weak, so that they can label the strong as evil and themselves as good. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadle...
2022-Jan-14 • 16 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - Ressentiment And The Slave Revolt In Morality
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on what Nietzsche calls the "slave revolt in morality" which carries out a transvaluation of values, taking good vs. evil as the main valuation, rather than good vs. bad To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - https...
2022-Jan-12 • 17 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - The Priest And The Interesting Animal - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on the figure that he calls "the priest", which introduces a new valuation. With the priest, Nietzsche tells us, the human being becomes an interesting animal. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - https://www.buy...
2022-Jan-10 • 17 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - The Primary Valuation - Good And Bad - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on what he views as the primary or original valuation of good vs bad. This is made by the strong, who identify themselves as the good, and imposed upon the weak and commoners, who are devalued as bad. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reason...
2022-Jan-08 • 14 minutes
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy Of Morals - Mistakes Of English Psychologists - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, and discusses his work The Genealogy of Morals. It focuses specifically on his discussion of the unnamed "English psychologists" in chapters 1-3 of the first essay. While noting that they do take a genealogical approach, he criticizes them for several mistakes, which include adopting an ahistorical point of view To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution,...
2022-Jan-07 • 15 minutes
Soren Kierkegaard, The Crowd Is Untruth - The Single Individual - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher, essayist, and theologian, Søren Kierkegaard's piece, "The Crowd Is Untruth," found in The Point of View for My Work as an Author It focuses specifically on his discussion of truth in its full sense as being something only possible for the single individual, not for a person within a crowd. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.pay...
2022-Jan-05 • 12 minutes
Soren Kierkegaard, The Crowd Is Untruth - Politics, The Public, The Press - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher, essayist, and theologian, Søren Kierkegaard's piece, "The Crowd Is Untruth," found in The Point of View for My Work as an Author It focuses specifically on his discussion of the political sphere, the public (a new phenomenon in modernity) and the press, all of which relate to the Crowd, and stand in the way of the Individual. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contri...
2022-Jan-04 • 18 minutes
Soren Kierkegaard The Present Age - Nullification Of Contradiction - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher, essayist, and theologian, Søren Kierkegaard's review essay "The Present Age" contained in his review of Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age It focuses specifically on how in the present age, the "principle of contradiction" is nullified, and examines the examples that Kierkegaard discusses. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so...
2022-Jan-03 • 16 minutes
Soren Kierkegaard The Present Age - The Single Individual's Options - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher, essayist, and theologian, Søren Kierkegaard's review essay "The Present Age" contained in his review of Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age It focuses specifically on what the “single individual” can do within the present age, which seems to threaten him or her with the process of leveling. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so...
2022-Jan-02 • 19 minutes
Soren Kierkegaard The Present Age - The Process Of Leveling - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher, essayist, and theologian, Søren Kierkegaard's review essay "The Present Age" contained in his review of Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age It focuses specifically on what Kierkegaard calls the process of "leveling", which is a form envy takes in the present age. Although leveling can occur partially through the actions of particular and concrete groups and individuals, it is an abstract process that occurs through reflect...
2022-Jan-01 • 22 minutes
Soren Kierkegaard The Present Age - Reflection And Envy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher, essayist, and theologian, Søren Kierkegaard's review essay "The Present Age" contained in his review of Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age It focuses specifically on the relation between reflection, which is one of the key features of what he calls the present age, and envy, which can take multiple forms, including that of "leveling" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like...
2021-Dec-31 • 15 minutes
Soren Kierkegaard The Present Age - The Public And The Press - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher, essayist, and theologian, Søren Kierkegaard's review essay "The Present Age" contained in his review of Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age It focuses specifically on what he calls two great abstract forces, the public and the press, and hw they contribute to leveling in the present age. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so he...
2021-Dec-30 • 21 minutes
Soren Kierkegaard The Present Age - Lack Of Passion And Action - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher, essayist, and theologian, Søren Kierkegaard's review essay "The Present Age" contained in his review of Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age It focuses specifically on the present age as one that is lacking in genuine human action and passion. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoff...
2021-Dec-29 • 19 minutes
Peter Singer, The Most Good You Can Do - Effective Altruism And Personal Happiness
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century Utilitarian and Effective Altruist philosopher, Peter Singer's book, The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically Specifically it focuses on chapter 9, in which he discusses whether effective altruists are sacrificing their own happiness for the happiness of others, or not. He also discusses whether effective altruists ought to be considered to be egoists of some sort or not You can get the book,...
2021-Dec-27 • 15 minutes
Peter Singer, The Most Good You Can Do - Effective Altruism, Reason And Motivation
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century Utilitarian and Effective Altruist philosopher, Peter Singer's book, The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically Specifically it focuses on chapter 8, where he considers whether and how reason can be a sufficient motivation for effective altruism, and how that could have come about. You can get the book, The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically her...
2021-Dec-26 • 17 minutes
Peter Singer, The Most Good You Can Do - Effective Altruism, Empathy, And Reason
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century Utilitarian and Effective Altruist philosopher, Peter Singer's book, The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically Specifically it focuses on chapter 7, where Singer discusses the possible motivations for effective altruism. He discusses the viewpoint that what we need is more empathy, distinguishes between emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy, and rejects the suitably of emotional empathy, a...
2021-Dec-24 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 9 - Trading, Gifts, Exchange, And Friendship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 9 of a key issue involved in friendships and other relationships: the exchanges of gifts, favors, and other good things between those involved in the relationship. Aristotle does not consider it unnatural or immoral for there to be expectations of some sort of give and take, or reciprocity between those involved in a friendship. How do...
2021-Dec-22 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 9 - Self-Love And Love Of Friends - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 9 of the issue of self-love (philautia) and how it fits into his advocacy of friendship (philia) as a significant good. Aristotle distinguishes between two very different types of self-love, making the distinction based upon the kinds of goods that are being desired, valued, and shared or competed over. When self-love is a matter of want...
2021-Dec-21 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 9 - Friendship, Prosperity, And Hardship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 9, focusing on the implications of friendship for times of prosperity and hardship. Who is the real friend? The person who is there when things are easy or who sticks around when matters get hard? And how should we act towards our own friends who find themselves in difficulties? To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.p...
2021-Dec-20 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 9 - Friendship When Friends Change - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 9 of changes in friendships. These changes typically involve either the friends themselves changing, or the circumstances that brought the friends into the relationship - the bases of virtue, pleasure, or usefulness - changing over time. Aristotle thinks that it is natural for many friendships to break down if the bases for the friendshi...
2021-Dec-18 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 9 - Can One Be Friends With Oneself? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on discussion in book 9 bearing on the question - can a person be "friends" with him or herself? Aristotle's answer is that it depends on the moral quality of the person. A good person can exhibit the characteristic traits of friendship towards him or herself, but a bad person cannot. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler I...
2021-Dec-15 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 9 - Good Will And Concord - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 9 of two states connected with friendship, but not quite the same as it - goodwill (eunoia) and concord (homonoia). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You ...
2021-Dec-14 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 9 - Demands Of Multiple Friendships - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 9 of a common issue that arises with relationships or friendships: how to address the demands upon oneself that come with multiple friendships. Who should we give priority to, if we find ourselves not able to fulfill all of our obligations or the expectations out upon us? Should we, for example, ransom the person who ransomed us? Or our...
2021-Dec-12 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Political Regimes And The Household
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 8 that compares political regimes politeia) with various configurations of households and families oikoi). The relationships within the household can be understood analogously to various types of rule, or power structures found in the varied types of political structures. These include monarchy, aristocracy, timocracy, democracy, olig...
2021-Dec-10 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Breakdowns and Disagreements In Friendships - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 8 bearing upon how and why friendships of various sorts break down over time. Friendships based upon virtue or moral excellence tend to be much more enduring and resilient than friendships that are based primarily upon pleasure or usefulness. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to m...
2021-Dec-07 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Can Bad People Be Friends? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 8 about the question about whether bad people can be friends. His answer is that they certainly can be friends with others, including other bad people, in some sense, but not in the primary sense of friendship. And, the friendships of the bad will often be less lasting, more challenged and stressed, than those of other people. To suppor...
2021-Dec-06 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Can A Person Have Many Friends? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 8 of the question whether one person can indeed have many friends or not. The answer, for Aristotle, depends on what sense of "friendship" we mean. If we mean the primary and highest sense, a friendship based on virtue or moral goodness, his answer is no. But if we mean friendships based on pleasure or usefulness, the answer is yes -- a...
2021-Dec-04 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Affection Within The Family
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 8 about how friendship and affection function within the context of relationships in the family, the household, and in marriage Common examples are when one person is getting pleasure out of the relationship, but the other is getting some merely useful good - or when one person is friends with the other on account of the virtuous characte...
2021-Dec-01 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Unequal Friendships - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 8 about "unequal friendships", that is, relationships in which the members of the relationship are not deriving or motivated by the same good. Common examples are when one person is getting pleasure out of the relationship, but the other is getting some merely useful good - or when one person is friends with the other on account of the ...
2021-Nov-30 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Friendship Based On Virtue - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 8 about the most paradigmatic but also least common form of friendship (philia) - that oriented by virtue or moral excellence (arete) on the parts of the friends in the relationship. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/R...
2021-Nov-29 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Friendship Based On Pleasure - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 8 about the type of friendship (philia, in Greek), that is based upon pleasure (to hedon) - either pleasure derived from the other person in some way, or pleasure that is shared in by the members of the friendship. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you...
2021-Nov-28 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Friendship Based On Utility - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 8 about one particular kind of "friendship" (philia in Greek), those that are relationships based on "utility", "benefit", or "usefulness - to sumpheron in Greek. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyM...
2021-Nov-25 • 25 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - Three Kinds Of Friendship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussions of three main types of friendship -- friendship in terms of good character or virtue, which is friendship in the fullest sense -- friendship based on pleasure -- and friendship based on usefulness. We explore the differences between these kinds of friendship, why friendships of pleasure or usefulness are less durable, and whether a bad person ca...
2021-Nov-22 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 8 - What Is Friendship? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 8 (and 9) discussions of the nature of friendship. Aristotle sets out a number of conditions essential to friendship in any full sense of the term, and we go through each of them, examining what these criteria are, how they function, and what examples of them might be. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site ...
2021-Nov-19 • 14 minutes
Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lecture 31 - The Ego's Three Masters - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th and 20th century psychologist, writer, and originator of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud's Introductory Lecture number 31, "The Dissection of the Psychical Personality" It focuses specifically on his discussion of how the agency of the Ego attempts (generally unsuccessfully) to satisfy the demands and conditions imposed by three "masters" - the two other agencies of the Id and the Super-Ego, and the external world. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon s...
2021-Nov-17 • 13 minutes
Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lecture 31 - Relations Between Id, Ego, and Super-Ego
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th and 20th century psychologist, writer, and originator of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud's Introductory Lecture number 31, "The Dissection of the Psychical Personality" It focuses specifically on his discussion of the complicated ways the three main agencies Freud distinguishes - Ego, Super-Ego, and Id - are connected to each other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can d...
2021-Nov-16 • 16 minutes
Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lecture 31 - What The Id Is - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th and 20th century psychologist, writer, and originator of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud's Introductory Lecture number 31, "The Dissection of the Psychical Personality" It focuses specifically on his discussion of the largely unconscious agency which he terms the "Id" (Es). Freud clarifies a number of aspects of its nature, and how it is connected with the Ego. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a...
2021-Nov-16 • 19 minutes
Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lecture 31 - Super-Ego And Parental Function - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th and 20th century psychologist, writer, and originator of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud's Introductory Lecture number 31, "The Dissection of the Psychical Personality" It focuses specifically on his discussion of how the agency of the super-ego develops out of - and to some degree replaces - the parental function. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.pa...
2021-Nov-14 • 20 minutes
Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lecture 31 - Super-Ego, Conscience, And Morality - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th and 20th century psychologist, writer, and originator of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud's Introductory Lecture number 31, "The Dissection of the Psychical Personality" It focuses specifically on his discussion of the agency of the Super-Ego and its relations with conscience and morality. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at Bu...
2021-Nov-12 • 15 minutes
Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lecture 31 - Meanings Of "Unconscious" - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th and 20th century psychologist, writer, and originator of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud's Introductory Lecture number 31, "The Dissection of the Psychical Personality" It focuses specifically on his discussion of the different senses of a key term and concept for psychoanalysis, namely "unconscious". Freud clarifies several distinct senses of that term, and argues that one of these should really be called "preconcious" To support my ongoing work, go to my Pa...
2021-Nov-10 • 16 minutes
Judith Jarvis Thompson, The Trolley Problem - Villains And Threats - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, Judith Jarvis Thompson's article "The Trolley Problem" It focuses specifically on her discussion of how adding in villains who create situations of forced choices and make threats would or would not affect the resolution of cases. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4...
2021-Nov-10 • 17 minutes
Judith Jarvis Thompson, The Trolley Problem - Appealing To The Concept Of A Right
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, Judith Jarvis Thompson's article "The Trolley Problem" It focuses specifically on her reframing of the issues and cases in terms of the concept of a right on the parts of the people affected by the choices of the agents in the cases. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.co...
2021-Nov-08 • 14 minutes
Judith Jarvis Thompson, The Trolley Problem - Killing And Letting Die - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, Judith Jarvis Thompson's article "The Trolley Problem" It focuses specifically on her discussion of the distinction Philippa Foot makes between killing and letting die. This seems to promise a solution to the "Trolley Problem", namely why it would be all right to kill one in place of killing five in the Trolley Driver scenario, while it is not all right to kill one instead of letting 5 die in the Transplant scenario. Thompson argues that...
2021-Nov-07 • 13 minutes
Judith Jarvis Thompson, The Trolley Problem - Thompson's Variant Cases - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, Judith Jarvis Thompson's article "The Trolley Problem" It focuses specifically on her discussion of the cases Philippa Foot's earlier and original formulation of the trolley problem (including several other related 1-in-place-of-5 dilemmas) set out, examined, and proposed a solution to. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.m...
2021-Nov-06 • 13 minutes
Judith Jarvis Thompson, The Trolley Problem - Philippa Foot's Cases And Solution
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, Judith Jarvis Thompson's article "The Trolley Problem" It focuses specifically on her discussion of the many variant cases she proposes for our consideration. These include the Bystander at the Switch (which is not the original Trolley Driver problem) with its different permutations, variations on Transplant and Hospital, and Villain-focused variants. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd lik...
2021-Nov-03 • 18 minutes
Miguel De Unamuno, Tragic Sense Of Life - Passionate Doubt - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, playwright, and poet Miguel de Unamuno's book Tragic Sense of Life It focuses specifically on his conception of "passionate doubt", which he distinguishes from a more abstract and theoretical doubt. Passionate doubt engages us existentially and practically. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at ...
2021-Nov-01 • 13 minutes
Miguel De Unamuno, Tragic Sense Of Life - Desire, Knowledge, And Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, playwright, and poet Miguel de Unamuno's book Tragic Sense of Life It focuses specifically on his views on why human beings value knowledge, which is usually not simply for its own sake, but because knowledge is connected with our desires and has its scope within human life To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/R...
2021-Oct-31 • 15 minutes
Miguel De Unamuno, Tragic Sense Of Life - Reason As A Social Product - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, playwright, and poet Miguel de Unamuno's book Tragic Sense of Life It focuses specifically on what he means by his claim that "reason is a social product" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTu...
2021-Oct-28 • 16 minutes
Miguel De Unamuno, Tragic Sense Of Life - Despair, Resignation, And Conflict - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, playwright, and poet Miguel de Unamuno's book Tragic Sense of Life It focuses specifically on his discussion of the responses to the three possible views one can take on human immortality. One of the views is that we die utterly, and we can know that. Another is that we live on, and we can know that. A third is that we cannot know either way. These lead to the experiences of despair, resignation, and conflict To support my ong...
2021-Oct-26 • 14 minutes
Miguel De Unamuno, Tragic Sense Of Life - The Cartesian Mistake - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, playwright, and poet Miguel de Unamuno's book Tragic Sense of Life It focuses specifically on his criticism of Rene Descartes' approach and assumptions in philosophy. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in m...
2021-Oct-26 • 14 minutes
Miguel De Unamuno, Tragic Sense Of Life - The Will And The Intelligence - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, playwright, and poet Miguel de Unamuno's book Tragic Sense of Life It focuses specifically on his conception of the relationship between the will, understood in a broad sense to include not just choice but affectivity, and the intellectual or rational capacities of a person. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/...
2021-Oct-22 • 17 minutes
Miguel De Unamuno, Tragic Sense Of Life - The Origins Of Philosophies - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, playwright, and poet Miguel de Unamuno's book Tragic Sense of Life It focuses specifically on his discussion of the origin of philosophies in the vital needs, desires, and demands of human beings, according to Unamuno. Genuine philosophy is an activity of the entire person, not just of the intellect, To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can...
2021-Oct-22 • 20 minutes
Miguel De Unamuno, Tragic Sense Of Life - The Tragic Sense Of Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, novelist, playwright, and poet Miguel de Unamuno's book Tragic Sense of Life It focuses specifically on discussions of what he means by that term itself, the "tragic sense of life" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos ...
2021-Oct-20 • 13 minutes
Leo Tolstoy, What Is Art? - The Beautiful, The True, and The Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher and novelist Leo Tolstoy's book What Is Art? It focuses specifically on his discussion of the notions of the beautiful, true, and good, which were often conflated in his time, and which Tolstoy thought needed to be distinguished from and even opposed to each other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyM...
2021-Oct-17 • 17 minutes
Leo Tolstoy, What Is Art? - Tolstoy's Definition Of Art - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher and novelist Leo Tolstoy's book What Is Art? It focuses specifically on the definition of Art that he provides in the work, construing it as a means of communion between people. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in m...
2021-Oct-16 • 19 minutes
Leo Tolstoy, What Is Art? - Why Elite Art Is Not True Art - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher and novelist Leo Tolstoy's book What Is Art? It focuses specifically on his his contention that elite art is not true or genuine art, and the arguments he provides to support his case To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy vide...
2021-Oct-15 • 12 minutes
Leo Tolstoy, What Is Art? - The Scope Of Art - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century philosopher and novelist Leo Tolstoy's book What Is Art? It focuses specifically on his discussion of the scope of what can be considered to be works of art. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.you...
2021-Oct-13 • 4 minutes
Blaise Pascal - Acting Like a Tyrant - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Blaise Pascal's Pensees, section 332, in which he reflects upon the nature of tyranny, which he interprets as demanding what is not one's due. This is often the case for people who are outstanding in one respect, and who unjustly demand respect or priority on some other grounds. You can get Pascal's Pensees here - https://amzn.to/3As8mpu The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4....
2021-Oct-12 • 5 minutes
Ursula K Leguin - Writing What You Know - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Ursula K Leguin's essay "Telling The Truth", found in her book The Language of the Night. She discusses how writers draw upon experience, and how being open or closed to experience offers a richness or poverty to the person. She also discusses the adage "write what you know", and interprets it in terms of knowing key elements of fantasy You can get Leguin's The Language Of The Night here - https://amzn.to/3BvVMqy The faint music in the background i...
2021-Oct-10 • 4 minutes
Plutarch - Making Good Use of Situations - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Plutarch's work On Contentment, where he tells us that while we often do not choose the situations and conditions we are placed in, we do have choices about how we deal with them, and whether we make good use of them or not You can get Plutarch's On Contentment here - https://amzn.to/3mJssqc The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses...
2021-Oct-05 • 3 minutes
Epictetus - Digesting Our Principles - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Epictetus' Discourses book 3, chapter 21, in which he tells us we need to digest, rather than regurgitate our principles by making them part of our consistent way of living You can get Epictetus' Discourses here - https://amzn.to/3wvQSXn The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Source:... http://incompetech.com/music/royal...
2021-Oct-04 • 5 minutes
Seneca - Laughing, Crying, Or Accepting - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Seneca's On Tranquility of Mind, where he suggests that instead of crying or being upset with the people and events of the world, we can laugh, or even neither laugh nor cry about but simply accept matters You can get Epictetus' Enchiridion here - https://amzn.to/3wvQSXn The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Source:... h...
2021-Oct-03 • 6 minutes
Epictetus - Considering What Things Involve - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Epictetus' Enchiridion, chapter 29, in which he advises us, before starting on some complex or difficult matter, to consider what it requires and whether we are really up for doing it You can get Epictetus' Enchiridion here - https://amzn.to/3wvQSXn The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Source:... http://incompetech.com/...
2021-Oct-02 • 5 minutes
Seneca - On Buying Too Many Books - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Seneca's On Tranquility of Mind, in which he suggests that we do not need too many books, but instead should get as much out of the books we do have. You can get Seneca's On Tranquility of Mind here - https://amzn.to/3zNU1mF The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Source:... http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index....
2021-Oct-01 • 5 minutes
Blaise Pascal - If We Dreamt The Same Thing - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Blaise Pascal's Pensees, section 386, in which he muses about the difference between waking and dreaming, and what it would be like for us if we dreamed consistently the same thing. This has significant implications for us in our present environment, in which we can arrange and choose to have the same images flooding us through television and films, games, and social media. You can get Pascal's Pensees here - https://amzn.to/3kKngT6 The faint music ...
2021-Sep-29 • 5 minutes
Epictetus - Picking Things Up By The Right Handle - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Epictetus' Enchiridion chapter 43, in which he suggests that we learn to pick up the things we need to bear by the right handle, not the wrong one You can get Epictetus' Enchiridion here - https://amzn.to/3wvQSXn The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Source:... http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=US...
2021-Sep-27 • 5 minutes
Rene Descartes - Who Should Not Doubt Like Him - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Rene Descartes' Discourse on Method part 2, in which - although he himself will describe and employ a method of hyperbolic doubt in the work - he suggests that most people should not engage in such a project of doubting everything, and explains why. You can get Rene Descartes' Discourse on Method here - https://amzn.to/2XOFCcW The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license....
2021-Sep-26 • 5 minutes
Seneca - Voices From The Past - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Seneca's On The Shortness of Life, in which he points out to us that by studying philosophy, we connect ourselves to some of the most intelligent and insightful people of the past. You can get Seneca's On The Shortness of Life here - https://amzn.to/3zNU1mF The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Source:... http://incompet...
2021-Sep-24 • 17 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - Cultivation Of Originality - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically on his advocacy and argument running throughout chapter 3 for the development and cultivation of what he calls "individuality". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1...
2021-Sep-23 • 14 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - Calvinism And Conformity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically on his discussion of what he calls the "Calvinist theory" about human nature, God's will, and individuality. He criticizes the repression of the development of human faculties and capacities To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeA...
2021-Sep-22 • 14 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - The Value Of Genius - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically on his discussion of what value he thinks there are to people of "genius", which involves examining what genius actually consists in. He also advocates for more open and free societies in which genius can develop and flourish. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - ww...
2021-Sep-21 • 15 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - What Individuality Encompasses - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically on his discussions in chapter 3 bearing upon what individuality extends to and encompasses, which turns out to be all of the faculties and capacities of a human being To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffe...
2021-Sep-19 • 18 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - How Accepted Opinions Are Held
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically on one of Mills' lines of argument about why opinions should not be silenced or suppressed. This one has to do with the ways in which accepted truths are held. Without some opposition or contrast, he claims, they will be held as mere prejudices. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, yo...
2021-Sep-16 • 16 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - Limiting Intemperate Discussion - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically on some claims that, while expression of opinion should not be limited or restricted, the ways or manners in which people express those opinions should remain within "temperate" or "civil" bounds. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at B...
2021-Sep-15 • 18 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - Overcoming One-Sidedness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically on his discussion of what he calls "one-sidedness" with respect to truth. In his view, because positions or perspectives rarely encompass the entire truth, it is useful from a utilitarian perspective to give opposed positions a hearing. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do s...
2021-Sep-14 • 17 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - The Harm Principle - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically on one of the central conceptions of the book, set out in chapter 1 - the Harm Principle. This ethical or moral principle asserts that the only reason coercive force may be legitimately brought to bear upon a person is to prevent harm to others. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you...
2021-Sep-11 • 19 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - Why Silencing Opinions Is Bad - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically on his arguments for why silencing opinions in society is bad from a utilitarian perspective. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouT...
2021-Sep-09 • 12 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - Why Free Discussion Is Useful - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically his argument that permitting free discussion and expression of opinions can be understood in terms of overall utility rather than abstract principles of right. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A...
2021-Sep-08 • 12 minutes
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty - Three Domains Of Liberty - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, On Liberty It focuses specifically his discussion of the three domains or areas of personal liberty or freedom his argument applies to. These are one's inward consciousness, which extends to expression, including speech and publication; lifestyle; and combination with other individuals.. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contributi...
2021-Sep-05 • 13 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - Justice, Courage, And Honesty - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's work After Virtue It focuses upon chapter 14, specifically on his discussion of why three virtues in particular - justice, courage, and honesty - are needed for practices, and to stave off the corrupting influences of institutions upon practices. MacIntyre does not claim that these are the only virtues ever needed, but he explains why these three are. To support my ongoing work, go to my P...
2021-Sep-01 • 16 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - Virtues And Institutions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's work After Virtue It focuses upon chapter 14, specifically on his discussion of how virtues, practices, and institutions are interrelated. Virtues and practices require institutions which sustain them, but institutions are necessarily focused on external goods, and can have a corrupting influence upon practices. The virtues are needed in order to counteract this effect. To support my ong...
2021-Aug-31 • 17 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - Practices, Standards, Rules, And Goods
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's work After Virtue It focuses upon chapter 14, specifically on his discussion of the interconnections between what he calls "practices", standards for excellence, rules which need to be followed, and goods or ends of those practices. All of these are integral to the relationship between virtues and practices as well. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler...
2021-Aug-29 • 25 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - What Is A Practice? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's work After Virtue It focuses upon chapter 14, specifically on his discussion of what a practice is. His concept of practice is central to making sense out of what the virtues are and what they involve. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - ww...
2021-Aug-26 • 16 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - How MacIntyre's Account Is Aristotelian - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's work After Virtue It focuses upon chapter 14, specifically on his discussion about the extent and ways in which his account is an "Aristotelian" one. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500...
2021-Aug-26 • 15 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue - Differing Accounts Of The Virtues - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's work After Virtue It focuses upon chapter 14, specifically on his discussion of several differing representative accounts of the virtues, including those of Homer, Aristotle, the New Testament, Benjamin Franklin, and Jane Austin. Examining these he distinguishes between conceptions of virtues that are based on social roles, utility, and the telos for human being as such. To support my ong...
2021-Aug-19 • 13 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Why No Created Good Is Human Happiness
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Secundae Partis, q. 2. It focuses upon his examination in article 8, inquiring into whether any created good could really be human happiness. Aquinas argues that only God can provide human happiness in its full sense but that the human soul plays a role in this, since we enjoy happiness through the soul. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon s...
2021-Aug-17 • 14 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Goods Of Body Or Soul And Human Happiness
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Secundae Partis, q. 2. It focuses upon his examination in articles 5 and 7, which consider the question whether human happiness can consist in any good of the human body or soul. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at Bu...
2021-Aug-15 • 14 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Pleasure And Human Happiness
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Secundae Partis, q. 2. It focuses upon his examination in article 6, about whether pleasure can constitute human happiness or not To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You ...
2021-Aug-13 • 12 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Honors, Fame, Power, And Human Happiness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Secundae Partis, q. 2. It focuses upon his examination in articles 2-4, about whether external goods such as honor, fame/glory, or power can be what human happiness consists in. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at B...
2021-Aug-11 • 12 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Wealth And Human Happiness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Secundae Partis, q. 2. It focuses upon his examination in article 1 whether wealth can be happiness, and discusses why that cannot be the case, according to Thomas To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - w...
2021-Aug-08 • 16 minutes
John Sellars, What Is Philosophy As A Way Of Life - Scientific Vs Humanistic Philosophy
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th-21st century philosopher John Sellars' recent article "What Is Philosophy As A Way Of Life" (Parrhesia, vol. 28) It discusses the distinction he develops early on in the article, between two different manners of understanding and engaging in philosophy. Philosophy as a Way of Life would be more closely associated with humanistically conceived philosophy. It focuses specifically on the understanding of human freedom as a fundamental value for ethics, centerin...
2021-Aug-08 • 15 minutes
John Sellars, What Is Philosophy As A Way Of Life - Philosophy As A Way Of Life As A Third Way
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th-21st century philosopher John Sellars' recent article "What Is Philosophy As A Way Of Life" (Parrhesia, vol. 28) It discusses specifically the three main views on Philosophy As A Way Of Life that he discusses - as humanistic philosophy; as a "third way" between analytic and continental philosophy; and philosophy as therapy. It focuses specifically on the understanding of human freedom as a fundamental value for ethics, centering on her phrase "willing oneself...
2021-Aug-08 • 15 minutes
John Sellars, What Is Philosophy As A Way Of Life - Three Views On Philosophy As A Way Of Life
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th-21st century philosopher John Sellars' recent article "What Is Philosophy As A Way Of Life" (Parrhesia, vol. 28) It discusses specifically the three main views on Philosophy As A Way Of Life that he discusses - as humanistic philosophy; as a "third way" between analytic and continental philosophy; and philosophy as therapy. It focuses specifically on the understanding of human freedom as a fundamental value for ethics, centering on her phrase "willing oneself...
2021-Aug-05 • 23 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, Ethics Of Ambiguity - Willing Oneself Free - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Ethics of Ambiguity It focuses specifically on the understanding of human freedom as a fundamental value for ethics, centering on her phrase "willing oneself free" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffe...
2021-Aug-04 • 12 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, Ethics Of Ambiguity - The Passionate Person - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Ethics of Ambiguity It focuses specifically on the type of person living an inauthentic existence associated with pursuing passions To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdW...
2021-Aug-02 • 19 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, Ethics Of Ambiguity - The Nihilist - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Ethics of Ambiguity It focuses specifically on the type of person making an inauthentic use of their human freedom that she terms the "nihilist". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoff...
2021-Aug-02 • 13 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, Ethics Of Ambiguity - The Adventurer - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Ethics of Ambiguity It focuses specifically on the type of person living an inauthentic existence, which she calls the "adventurer". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYd...
2021-Jul-31 • 20 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, Ethics Of Ambiguity - The Serious Person - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Ethics of Ambiguity It focuses specifically on the type of person who makes an inauthentic use of their human freedom by buying into values received from others or their culture, and treating them as absolutes, not taking responsibility for their own choice in giving those values that status. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - w...
2021-Jul-30 • 14 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, Ethics Of Ambiguity - The Sub-Human Person - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Ethics of Ambiguity It focuses specifically on the type of person whose of their freedom involves a rejection of their freedom, of responsibility, and their human capacities, rendering them a "sub-human" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - ww...
2021-Jul-29 • 20 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, Ethics Of Ambiguity - Existentialism, Marxism, And Freedom - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Ethics of Ambiguity It focuses specifically on her comparison and contrast of Existentialism and Marxism on the understanding of human freedom, action, and ethics. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffe...
2021-Jul-28 • 15 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, Ethics Of Ambiguity - Childhood, Adolescence, Moral Choice
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Ethics of Ambiguity It focuses specifically on how human beings develop from a situation of childhood either into a mature adulthood in which they have to take responsibility for their own freedom, or in which they remain an infantilized condition and irresponsibility. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler I...
2021-Jul-27 • 20 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, Ethics Of Ambiguity - Existentialism As A Philosophy of Ambiguity
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Ethics of Ambiguity It focuses specifically on what she means in asserting that Existentialism is a philosophy of ambiguity. It also discusses why in her view ambiguity is integral to the human condition, and how some modes of philosophy go wrong in attempting to simply resolve that ambiguity. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - ...
2021-Jul-24 • 15 minutes
Pierre Hadot, Philosophy As A Way Of Life - Death, Life, And Perspective - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher and historian of ideas, Pierre Hadot, and focuses on chapter 3 of his book, Philosophy As a Way of Life. This lecture examines his discussions of how considerations bearing on death provide context and perspective for living a philosophical life. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4q...
2021-Jul-22 • 13 minutes
Pierre Hadot, Philosophy As A Way Of Life - Philosophical Writing And Spiritual Exercises
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher and historian of ideas, Pierre Hadot, and focuses on chapter 3 of his book, Philosophy As a Way of Life. This lecture discusses the interrelation between philosophical writing and spiritual exercises. Taking into account genres, motivations, and uses of philosophical writings is centrally important, in Hadot's view To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here -...
2021-Jul-22 • 16 minutes
Pierre Hadot, Philosophy As A Way Of Life - Dialogue And Spiritual Exercise - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher and historian of ideas, Pierre Hadot, and focuses on chapter 3 of his book, Philosophy As a Way of Life. This lecture discusses the relationship between philosophical dialogue, dialogues as a genre of philosophical literature, and spiritual exercises To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com...
2021-Jul-20 • 17 minutes
Pierre Hadot, Philosophy As A Way Of Life - Types Of Spiritual Exercises - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher and historian of ideas, Pierre Hadot, and focuses on chapter 3 of his book, Philosophy As a Way of Life. This lecture discusses the four main interconnected types of spiritual exercises Hadot distinguishes within ancient philosophy. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You c...
2021-Jul-19 • 14 minutes
Pierre Hadot, Philosophy As A Way Of Life - Spiritual Exercises And Philosophy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher and historian of ideas, Pierre Hadot, and focuses on chapter 3 of his book, Philosophy As a Way of Life. This lecture discusses Hadot's contention that philosophy as developed, understood, and practiced in antiquity involved what can best be described as an entire range of "spiritual exercises". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reason...
2021-Jul-18 • 5 minutes
Aristotle - Outlines And Exactness In Ethics - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 1 chapter 7, in which Aristotle is discussing what kinds of people have developed good judgement about matters, particularly those concerned with what he calls Political Science and Moral Science or Ethics, the discipline involved in living well. He references two distinct types or sources of immaturity that would make a person less able to study, understand, and apply ethics - immaturity of age and immaturity of c...
2021-Jul-15 • 4 minutes
Epictetus - Taking A Pause With Pleasures - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Epictetus' Enchiridion, chapter 34, in which Epictetus suggests a practice that we can engage in when we are encountering something that tempts us with the promise of enjoying pleasure. Instead of giving in right away, we can take a pause and consider how we will feel after either indulging in the pleasure or resisting it. We might even feel a greater pleasure in having maintained our own self-control. You can get Epictetus' Enchiridion here - https...
2021-Jul-14 • 5 minutes
Lev Shestov - Logical Thinking, Philosophy, and Imagination - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Lev Shestov's book All Things Are Possible (part 1, ch. 21), in which he tells us that "the habit of logical thinking kills imagination" and argues that genuine philosophy must give priority to imagination over logic. You can get Lev Shestov's All Things Are Possible here - https://amzn.to/3AiUI9o The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org...
2021-Jul-13 • 6 minutes
Lev Shestov - The Creative Process - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Lev Shestov's book All Things Are Possible (part 1, ch. 42), in which he discusses the "raptures of the creative process" imagined by consumers of creative works, and the mistaken syllogistic inference they engage in. A more realistic view is that "creative activity is a continual progression from failure to failure". You can get Lev Shestov's All Things Are Possible here - https://amzn.to/3AiUI9o The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by ...
2021-Jul-12 • 14 minutes
William James, Pragmatism Lecture 2 - Pragmatic Truth Of The Absolute - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th-20th century philosopher and psychologist, William James, and focuses his set of lectures, "Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking", specifically on lecture 2, "What Pragmatism Means", and discusses how a pragmatist might look at the notion of the (fairly Hegelian) Absolute, considered as an object of religious belief. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - ww...
2021-Jul-11 • 14 minutes
William James, Pragmatism Lecture 2 - Older Truths And New Opinions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th-20th century philosopher and psychologist, William James, and focuses his set of lectures, "Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking", specifically on lecture 2, "What Pragmatism Means", and discusses how new opinions are entertained and then assimilated into the matrix of the older beliefs that we hold as true. Generally the new ideas or experiences are not accepted wholesale, but rather end up being adjusted to fit in with as many of the older truths as we can ...
2021-Jul-11 • 15 minutes
William James, Pragmatism Lecture 2 - Pragmatism, Rationalism, And Empiricism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th-20th century philosopher and psychologist, William James, and focuses his set of lectures, "Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking", specifically on lecture 2, "What Pragmatism Means", and discusses the relationship between pragmatism and two other general approaches in philosophy his audience would be very familiar with - empiricism and rationalism. In his view, pragmatism is a radical form of empiricism To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www...
2021-Jul-10 • 17 minutes
William James, Pragmatism Lecture 2 - The Pragmatic Theory Of Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th-20th century philosopher and psychologist, William James, and focuses his set of lectures, "Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking", specifically on lecture 2, "What Pragmatism Means", and discusses the pragmatic theory of truth. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find ov...
2021-Jul-09 • 18 minutes
William James, Pragmatism Lecture 2 - The Pragmatic Method - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th-20th century philosopher and psychologist, William James, and focuses his set of lectures, "Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking", specifically on lecture 2, "What Pragmatism Means", and discusses what he calls the "pragmatic method" as a way of approaching controversial or contested matters. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or...
2021-Jul-08 • 5 minutes
Aristotle - Giving and Getting What One Doesn't Want - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 9 chapter 1, in which Aristotle discusses the sorts of tensions that arise within friendships and other relationships, having to do with what one party gives, promises, or provides to the other. Aristotle notes that giving someone something they don't want, in place of what they do desire, is often worse than not giving them anything at all. You can get Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics here - https://amzn.to/3dF2G2z...
2021-Jul-06 • 5 minutes
Epictetus - When Someone Is Preferred To You - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Epictetus' Enchiridion, chapter 25, in which Epictetus provides advice about how to handle situations in which we find someone being preferred by others instead of us. He suggests there are several things we can remind ourselves of in order to approach these situations more productively You can get Epictetus' Enchiridion here - https://amzn.to/3wvQSXn The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons...
2021-Jul-05 • 4 minutes
Albert Camus - The Absurd Breaking Through Routine - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Albert Camus' book The Myth of Sisyphus, in which he narrates one way in which human beings occasionally become aware of the absurd, when the routines they unthinkingly follow break down and reveal the contingency and perhaps meaninglessness of what one does day in, day out You can get Albert Camus' Myth of Sisyphus here - https://amzn.to/3dMxXkq The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attri...
2021-Jul-05 • 5 minutes
Plutarch - Contentment And Good Or Bad Memories - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from the middle Platonist philosopher Plutarch's essay On Contentment. He discusses the role that good or bad memories play in whether we are content or not, and asserts that we have some measure of control over which of these sorts of memories we bring to mind and reflect upon or ruminate over. You can get Plutarch's Essays here - https://amzn.to/2TAFX0X The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons ...
2021-Jul-02 • 5 minutes
Aristotle - Judgement, Maturity, And The Art Of Living - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 1 chapter3, in which Aristotle is discussing what kinds of people have developed good judgement about matters, particularly those concerned with what he calls Political Science and Moral Science or Ethics, the discipline involved in living well. He references two distinct types or sources of immaturity that would make a person less able to study, understand, and apply ethics - immaturity of age and immaturity of ch...
2021-Jun-30 • 14 minutes
W.D. Ross The Right And The Good - Conflicts And Connections Between Duties - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on Ross' discussions about how the seven prima facie duties could be connected with, or conflict with each other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www....
2021-Jun-30 • 4 minutes
Lev Shestov - The Parable Of The Pike - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Lev Shestov's book All Things Are Possible (part 2, ch. 3), in which he narrates an experiment about conditioning a pike not to pursue its prey fish. He draws a comparison between human beings, with their habits and expectations long established, and the pike, and suggest that we approach life boldly, even if it means we "bruise our noses". You can get Lev Shestov's All Things Are Possible here - https://amzn.to/3AiUI9o The faint music in the backgr...
2021-Jun-29 • 13 minutes
W.D. Ross, The Right And The Good - The Duty Of Non-Maleficence - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on W.D. Ross' discussion of the prima facie duty of Non-Maleficence in chapter 2 of his work The Right and the Good. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - ...
2021-Jun-27 • 15 minutes
W.D. Ross, The Right And The Good - The Duty Of Beneficence - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on W.D. Ross' discussion of the prima facie duty of Beneficence in chapter 2 of his work The Right and the Good. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www....
2021-Jun-26 • 18 minutes
W.D.Ross, The Right And The Good - The Duty Of Self-Improvement - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on W.D. Ross' discussion of the prima facie duty of Self-Improvement in chapter 2 of his work The Right and the Good. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - ...
2021-Jun-25 • 12 minutes
W.D. Ross, The Right And The Good - The Duty Of Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on W.D. Ross' discussion of the prima facie duty of Justice in chapter 2 of his work The Right and the Good. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buym...
2021-Jun-23 • 7 minutes
W.D.Ross, The Right And The Good - The Duty Of Reparation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on his discussion of the prima facie duty of Reparation in chapter 2 of his work The Right and the Good. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeaco...
2021-Jun-22 • 19 minutes
W.D.Ross, The Right And The Good - The Duty Of Gratitude - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on his discussion of the prima facie duty of Gratitude in chapter 2 of his work The Right and the Good. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoff...
2021-Jun-20 • 13 minutes
W.D.Ross, The Right And The Good - The Duty Of Fidelity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on his discussion of the prima facie duty of Fidelity in chapter 2 of his work The Right and the Good. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffe...
2021-Jun-20 • 18 minutes
W.D. Ross, The Right And The Good - The Prima Facie Duties - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on examples meant to help viewers understand ch. 2 of W.D. Ross' The Right and the Good. In this video, we focus on Ross' list of seven prima facie duties, examining what they are, how they arise, and how they differ from each other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sad...
2021-Jun-18 • 19 minutes
W.D Ross, The Right And The Good - Criticisms Of Other Moral Theories - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and translator, William David Ross' important work in ethics and moral theory, The Right and the Good. This lecture focuses specifically on on Ross' notion that the "moral convictions of thoughtful and educated people are the data of ethics". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeaco...
2021-Jun-16 • 14 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Socrates The Lover (Alcibiades) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Alcibiades, and discusses Socrates' status as both a lover and as an object of love (a beloved). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or ...
2021-Jun-15 • 12 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Socrates, Ugliness, And Beauty (Alcibiades) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Alcibiades, and discusses Socrates' external ugliness and internal beauty (among other things) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or a...
2021-Jun-14 • 16 minutes
Plato, Symposium - The Ladder Of Love (Diotima & Socrates) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Socrates (narrating the wise woman, Diotima's teachings) in which he sets out a ladder by which the lover can ascend from beautiful bodies ultimately to Beauty itself, the Form of Beauty To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If y...
2021-Jun-12 • 14 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Love, Poetry, And Procreation (Diotima & Socrates) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Socrates (narrating the wise woman, Diotima's teaching), in which all human beings are "pregnant" in their souls, and bear different kinds of progeny. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribu...
2021-Jun-11 • 12 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Love As Mediator (Diotima & Socrates) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Socrates (narrating an earlier discussion with the wise woman Diotima), in which he discusses Love's role as an intermediary between the gods and human beings. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct ...
2021-Jun-09 • 12 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Love As Lack Of The Good (Socrates & Agathon) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the dialectical discussion between Socrates and Agathon. In the course of this discussion, the position Agathon has just argued for, i.e. that Love is good and beautiful is examined, and argued not to be the case, since Love desires what it lacks To support my ongoing work, go to my P...
2021-Jun-07 • 13 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Love As Master Of The Virtues (Agathon) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Agathon, examining the argument he makes that Love is actually the master of all of the four cardinal virtues - Temperance, Courage, Justice, and Wisdom To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contrib...
2021-Jun-04 • 12 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Love's Youth, Delicacy, And Suppleness (Agathon) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Agathon. In that speech, he argues that Love is the most beautiful of the gods, and this video examines his argument and its sub-arguments. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ...
2021-Jun-03 • 13 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Politics And The Love Of Men (Aristophanes) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Aristophanes. In setting out the conception of love as desire for one's missing half, he discusses the original "three sexes" of human beings, and how in our divided state these explain male-female, male-male, and female-female attraction To support my ongoing work, ...
2021-Jun-01 • 9 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Three Types Of Men And Women (Aristophanes) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Aristophanes. In setting out the conception of love as desire for one's missing half, he discusses the original "three sexes" of human beings, and how in our divided state these explain male-female, male-male, and female-female attraction To support my ongoing work,...
2021-May-30 • 9 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Love As Desire For Lost Unity (Aristophanes)
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Aristophanes. It focuses on his classic interpretation of Love as a desire for a lost unity, one possessed when we were formerly united with our "missing half". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direc...
2021-May-27 • 9 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Love As A Cosmic Phenomenon (Eryximachus)- Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Eryximachus. It focuses on his discussion of how his conception of (good) Love as something like an agreement between opposites plays out not only in his art of Medicine, but also in Music. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler ...
2021-May-26 • 11 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Love, Music, And Medicine (Eryximachus) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Eryximachus. It focuses on his discussion of how his conception of (good) Love as something like an agreement between opposites plays out not only in his art of Medicine, but also in Music. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler ...
2021-May-25 • 13 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Healthy And Diseased Love (Eryximachus) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Eryximachus. It focuses on his distinction between healthy and diseased Love in the body. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at Bu...
2021-May-24 • 13 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Paradoxes Of Love (Pausanius) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the speech made by Pausanius. It focuses on the seeming paradoxes arising with love - particularly on the moral status of love as a feeling and the actions characteristically connected with it. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like ...
2021-May-23 • 20 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Laws And The Love Of Youth (Pausanius) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on Pausanius' discussion in his speech about different legal and cultural approaches to male-male sexual relationships, particularly those falling under the rubric of "pederastia" (love of youths) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to...
2021-May-22 • 13 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Heavenly And Earthly Love (Pausanius) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on Pausanius' distinction made in his speech between two different kinds of love or Eros, an earthly, common love and a heavenly, noble love To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.pa...
2021-May-20 • 12 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Is The Lover Or Beloved Greater? (Phaedrus) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on an issue arising in Phaedrus' speech - whether the lover or the beloved, i.e. the person feeling love or the object of love, is "greater". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.p...
2021-May-20 • 15 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Love, Nobility, And Virtue (Phaedrus) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the claim made in Phaedrus' speech that Love brings out the finest in human beings by turning them towards nobility and virtue. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Re...
2021-May-18 • 12 minutes
Plato, Symposium - How And Why Love Should Be Praised - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on why the characters decide to praise love, and even more importantly how and whether they do in fact praise love in their speeches. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me...
2021-May-17 • 16 minutes
Plato, Symposium - Style And Content Of The Character's Speeches - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture provides an overview of the style and content of the speeches, discussing how the speeches reflect the character types of the interlocutors To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or ...
2021-May-16 • 14 minutes
Plato, Symposium - The Narrative Framework Of The Symposium
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, one of the great works of literature from the ancient world, focused on the nature of love. This lecture focuses specifically on the complex narrative structure of the work, which includes some stories within the story, and several levels of narration To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonI...
2021-May-16 • 19 minutes
Franz Kafka, In The Penal Colony - The Explorer's Verdict - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century novelist and short story writer, Franz Kafka, "In The Penal Colony" It focuses specifically on the explorer's verdict and reasoned judgement upon the mode of justice and execution, the machine that inscribes the imperative a prisoner has violated upon their body. The officer attempts to get the explorer on his side by explaining the workings of the machine and the intentions behind it, but the explorer makes his condemnation of the practic...
2021-May-14 • 18 minutes
Franz Kafka, In The Penal Colony - The Machine As Inscribing Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century novelist and short story writer, Franz Kafka, "In The Penal Colony" It focuses specifically on the "machine" at the center of the story, a device designed to inscribe a prisoner's offense upon their body as a way of imposing the old commandant's and the officer's conception of justice upon them. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www....
2021-May-13 • 20 minutes
Franz Kafka, In The Penal Colony - Justice In The Penal Colony - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century novelist and short story writer, Franz Kafka, "In The Penal Colony" It focuses specifically on the differing conceptions of justice and injustice at play within the story. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main...
2021-May-11 • 16 minutes
Michel Foucault, Technologies Of The Self - Early Christian Care Of The Self - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "Technologies of the Self" It focuses specifically on the continuities and changes in how early Christians understood self-knowledge and the care of the self. He identifies two main sets of practices - exomologesis and exagoreusis - and explains what they consist in and how they were understood and applied To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like...
2021-May-10 • 23 minutes
Michel Foucault, Technologies Of The Self - Stoic Care Of The Self - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "Technologies of the Self" It focuses specifically on the various technologies of the self developed for the care of the self b y members of the Stoic school of philosophy. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You c...
2021-May-09 • 13 minutes
Michel Foucault, Technologies Of The Self - Hellenistic And Roman Care Of The Self
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "Technologies of the Self" It focuses specifically on several aspects of Hellenistic and Roman Imperial era approaches to the care of the self. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy v...
2021-May-08 • 19 minutes
Michel Foucault, Technologies Of The Self - Socratic And Platonic Care Of The Self
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "Technologies of the Self" It focuses specifically on his analysis - based on the platonic texts, Apology and Alcibiades - of key features and elements of the Socratic and Platonic care for the self To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeaco...
2021-May-07 • 15 minutes
Michel Foucault, Technologies Of The Self - Care Of The Self And Knowing Oneself
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "Technologies of the Self" It focuses specifically on the interplay between two precepts connected with technologies of the self in the West - take care of your self (epimeleisthai seautou) and know oneself (gnothi seauton). According to Foucault, philosophy practiced and understood as a way of life in ancient times tended to prioritize the first, but modern and contemporary thought prioritizes t...
2021-May-06 • 18 minutes
Michel Foucault, Technologies Of The Self - Four Types Of Technology - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "Technologies of the Self" It focuses specifically on the four types of technology he distinguishes early on in the work - those of production, sign-systems, power, and the self. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM...
2021-May-05 • 19 minutes
Julian The Emperor, Oration 6 - Cynicism, Discipline, And Happiness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the ancient philosopher and ruler, Julian the Emperor (also known as Julian the Apostate), Oration 6, "To The Uneducated Cynics". It focuses specifically on Julian's conception of what the genuine Cynic life looks like, namely a life of self-discipline, aimed at virtue, wisdom, and happiness. By contrast, many of the "Cynics" of his time are, according to Julian, off-base in their attention-seeking behavior. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon s...
2021-May-04 • 12 minutes
Julian The Emperor, Oration 6 - Cynicism As Universal Philosophy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the ancient philosopher and ruler, Julian the Emperor (also known as Julian the Apostate), Oration 6, "To The Uneducated Cynics". It focuses specifically on his assertion that Cynicism, properly understood, is really a universal philosophy. This would take it beyond the distinctive boundaries of the Cynic school and its practitioners or adherents of his time To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make...
2021-May-03 • 14 minutes
Julian The Emperor, Oration 6 - What Philosophy Is - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the ancient philosopher and ruler, Julian the Emperor (also known as Julian the Apostate), Oration 6, "To The Uneducated Cynics". It focuses specifically on Julian's explanation of what in his view philosophy is and ought to be. He has in mind not only the philosophical school or movement of Cynicism, but also various Platonic, Aristotelian, Epicurean, Stoic, and Skeptic schools and movements. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patr...
2021-May-02 • 14 minutes
Plato, The Ion - Poetry And Divine Inspiration - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Ion, during which Socrates questions Ion, a rhapsode, about his art. It focuses specifically on Socrates' theory about Poetry expressed there, namely that the Poets (and also their interpreters, the Rhapsodes, like Ion) don't actually possess and work from knowledge, but rather are divinely possessed or inspired. Socrates sets out an analogy -- the action of the god on the poet, and the poet on the audience is like magneti...
2021-May-01 • 11 minutes
Plato, The Ion - Do Poets Possess Knowledge? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Ion, during which Socrates questions Ion, a rhapsode, about his art. It focuses specifically on the question whether poets (or their interpreters, the rhapsodes) really possess knowledge about the matters they write and speak about in their works. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMe...
2021-Apr-30 • 11 minutes
Plato, The Ion - Speaking Well And Subject-Matters - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Ion, during which Socrates questions Ion, a rhapsode, about his art. It focuses specifically on the implications of what Socrates calls "speaking well" or "speaking poorly" (i.e. as someone with expertise) for the question of who possesses knowledge in that dialogue. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Re...
2021-Apr-28 • 21 minutes
Lev Shestov, All Things Are Possible - Morality, Philosophy, And Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and social critic, Lev Shestov's work All Things Are Possible It focuses specifically on his views on morality, about which he evinces considerable skepticism. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube ...
2021-Apr-27 • 12 minutes
Lev Shestov, All Things Are Possible - Approaches To Death - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and social critic, Lev Shestov's work All Things Are Possible It focuses specifically on his examination of the fear or anxiety we human beings have about death, the relationship between philosophy and death, and how we might approach death To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoff...
2021-Apr-26 • 20 minutes
Lev Shestov, All Things Are Possible - Philosophy And Logic - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and social critic, Lev Shestov's work All Things Are Possible It focuses specifically on his views on the usefulness and the scope of logic, argumentation, and dialectic, and why philosophy should not allow itself to be too closely connected with logic. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - w...
2021-Apr-24 • 21 minutes
Lev Shestov, All Things Are Possible - Nietzsche And Dostoevsky - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and social critic, Lev Shestov's work All Things Are Possible It focuses specifically on what he has to say in that work about these two important early existentialists, Friedrich Nietzsche and Fyodor Dostoevsky. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can fi...
2021-Apr-23 • 22 minutes
Lev Shestov, All Things Are Possible - Writers, Creativity, And Literature - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and social critic, Lev Shestov's work All Things Are Possible It focuses specifically on his views on creativity, creative work, writers, and literature. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel -...
2021-Apr-22 • 20 minutes
Lev Shestov, All Things Are Possible - Contingency And Groundlessness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and social critic, Lev Shestov's work All Things Are Possible It focuses specifically on his treatments of radical contingency and of "groundlessness", including how we might approach both of them philosophically To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can fi...
2021-Apr-21 • 18 minutes
Lev Shestov, All Things Are Possible - Philosophy's Real Task - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and social critic, Lev Shestov's work All Things Are Possible It focuses specifically on his views on what the genuine tasks and functions of philosophy ought to be. These will be at odds with much of what gets called "philosophy" in the present. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buym...
2021-Apr-20 • 23 minutes
Lev Shestov, All Things Are Possible - Sequence, Consequence, And Causality - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and social critic, Lev Shestov's work All Things Are Possible It focuses specifically on his critical stance towards conceptions of causality, or what he calls the "law of sequence", both in natural phenomena, and in the development of creative and intellectual persons' works and systems. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal....
2021-Apr-19 • 19 minutes
Lev Shestov, All Things Are Possible - Ultimate Realities And Questions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher and social critic, Lev Shestov's work All Things Are Possible It focuses specifically on his views on whether or not we in the present - or people in the past - can get to ultimate realities, or frame and resolve the most important questions of life, or not, and why this is the case. He also discusses what we can do as we face these inescapable questions To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd ...
2021-Apr-17 • 23 minutes
Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks - The Negro And Hegel - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, psychoanalyst, and social critic Frantz Fanon's work Black Skin, White Masks It focuses specifically on his discussion of the complex Hegelian conception of Recognition (Anerkennen) in the section of chapter 8 titled "The Negro and Hegel". Fanon critically interprets Hegel's conception of self-consciousness, its relation to its other, and the master-slave dialectic. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sad...
2021-Apr-16 • 18 minutes
Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks - Past, Future, And Action - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, psychoanalyst, and social critic Frantz Fanon's work Black Skin, White Masks It focuses specifically on his discussions in the middle of the work and towards the end, bearing upon how to move forward in the present and the future, which requires clarifying one's relationship with, and the relevance of the past and of history. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contri...
2021-Apr-15 • 29 minutes
Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks - Psychoanalysis, Racism, And Culture
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, psychoanalyst, and social critic Frantz Fanon's work Black Skin, White Masks It focuses specifically on his critical engagements with psychoanalytic theory in the work, including discussions of Freud, Jung, Adler, Lacan, Manonni, Guex, and others. Fanon also sets out what a sufficiently attentive psychoanalysis would look like and accomplish To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make...
2021-Apr-14 • 25 minutes
Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks - What Language Reveals - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, psychoanalyst, and social critic Frantz Fanon's work Black Skin, White Masks It focuses specifically on his discussions of the roles language and dialect plays in black-white relations, examined in the first chapter of the book. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4qu...
2021-Apr-13 • 20 minutes
Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks - Particularity And Universality - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, psychoanalyst, and social critic Frantz Fanon's work Black Skin, White Masks It focuses specifically on the interplay or dialectic between Fanon's analysis as oriented by particular situations and its extension to more universal dynamics To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffe...
2021-Apr-12 • 22 minutes
Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks - The Overall Approach And Argument - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, psychoanalyst, and social critic Frantz Fanon's work Black Skin, White Masks It focuses specifically on on the overall approach and argument made within the work. Fanon frames his work as a psychoanalytic one, drawing upon critical engagements with psychoanalytic theory, existentialism, literature, and lived experience. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution...
2021-Apr-08 • 9 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Freedom Of Choice - Five Kinds Of Freedom Of Choice
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Freedom of Choice (the second work in a trilogy including On Truth and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion in the last chapter of the work, in which he distinguishes between five different kinds or modes of freedom of choice (libertas arbitrii). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a...
2021-Apr-07 • 10 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Freedom Of Choice - Will As Instrument And Use
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Freedom of Choice (the second work in a trilogy including On Truth and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on the distinction that he makes between two different senses of "will" (voluntas). One of these is will-as-instrument, or as the faculty of the will. The other is will-as-use, the act or willing, or the use of that instrument or faculty. Making this dis...
2021-Apr-05 • 12 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Freedom Of Choice - Willing To Abandon Rectitude Of Will
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Freedom of Choice (the second work in a trilogy including On Truth and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion of how a person who possesses rectitude or rightness of will (rectitudo voluntatis) can abandon that rectitude. According to Anselm, a person cannot be forced to do so, although they can be placed in a situation of forced choice or diffic...
2021-Apr-02 • 12 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Freedom Of Choice - Servitude To Sin - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Freedom of Choice (the second work in a trilogy including On Truth and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion of what he calls "slavery to sin", i.e. the inability to not sin or do wrong in a person, when rectitude of will is missing from their will. The question he is grappling with is how a person, while being free, can make themself into a sla...
2021-Apr-02 • 10 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Freedom Of Choice - Why God Cannot Take Away Freedom Of Choice
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Freedom of Choice (the second work in a trilogy including On Truth and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his argument bearing upon why God cannot take away rectitude or rightness of will (rectitudo voluntatis) from a person who possesses it. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribut...
2021-Mar-31 • 10 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Freedom Of Choice - Freedom Of Choice And Rectitude Of Will
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Freedom of Choice (the second work in a trilogy including On Truth and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion of rectitude or rightness of will (rectitudo voluntatis) and its relation with freedom of choice (libertas arbitrii). Anselm has the teacher and student in the dialogue sort through for possibilities for why rightness of will was given to...
2021-Mar-30 • 11 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Fredom Of Choice - What Freedom Of Choice Is - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Freedom of Choice (the second work in a trilogy including On Truth and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion early on in the work of what freedom of choice (libertas arbitrii) is, its connection with rectitude or rightness of will (rectitudo voluntatis) and how it differs from other abilities (potestas) like the ability to sin or not To support...
2021-Mar-29 • 14 minutes
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan - Rights Of Sovereigns - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern philosopher Thomas Hobbes' work Leviathan It focuses specifically on chapter 18, which enumerates the rights Hobbes argues must be granted to the authority he terms the "sovereign" in order to maintain a state of peace within civil society. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM ...
2021-Mar-28 • 17 minutes
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan - Commwealth, Covenant, And Subject - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern philosopher Thomas Hobbes' work Leviathan It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 17 of the work, outlining how the political community Hobbes calls a "commonwealth" comes into existence, and how those contracting or covenanting with each other create an absolute authority in the sovereign. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/...
2021-Mar-27 • 15 minutes
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan - The Other Laws Of Nature - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern philosopher Thomas Hobbes' work Leviathan It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 15 of the work, during which he sets out the other 12 laws of nature going beyond the first two. These moral norms outline how a rational human being who desires peace should behave within a commonwealth, and they correlate to virtues to be cultivated and vices to be avoided, according to Hobbes To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/...
2021-Mar-25 • 16 minutes
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan - The First And Second Laws Of Nature - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern philosopher Thomas Hobbes' work Leviathan It focuses specifically on his discussion of the first two laws of nature in chapter 14. Natural laws are general rules worked out by reason, forbidding human beings from doing things destructive to their lives and commanding them to do what will preserve their lives To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.pay...
2021-Mar-24 • 17 minutes
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan - The State Of Nature And Conflict - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern philosopher Thomas Hobbes' work Leviathan It focuses specifically on his depiction in chapter 13 of the "state of nature" for human beings, which is a state of war of all against all. He also discusses the three main causes of human conflict: competition, diffidence or anticipation, and vanity. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO...
2021-Mar-22 • 17 minutes
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan - Manners, Desires, And Motivation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern philosopher Thomas Hobbes' work Leviathan It focuses specifically on his discussion of "manners", that is human behavior and motivation, particularly what conduces to peace or war between human beings To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy video...
2021-Mar-21 • 16 minutes
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Power, Value, And Honor - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern philosopher Thomas Hobbes' work Leviathan It focuses specifically on his discussion of chapter 10, titled "Of Power, Worth, Dignity, and Worthiness", in which Hobbes sets out his views on what each of these mean, how they are interconnected, and their implications for moral psychology, ethics, and political theory. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - ww...
2021-Mar-21 • 18 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Laws, Actions, And Punishments
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his discussion about how he views the purpose and functions of laws and punishments, and what the implications of the "doctrine of necessity" are for those. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffe...
2021-Mar-19 • 16 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Necessity, Motive, And Volition
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his discussion about how what he calls the "doctrine of necessity" applies to human motives, volitions, and actions. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 ...
2021-Mar-17 • 13 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Rejection Of Divine Occasionalism
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his examination and rejection of the occasionalist doctrine, most famously articulated by Nicolas Malebranche, which makes God the direct cause of all phenomena To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeac...
2021-Mar-15 • 13 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - God, Evil, And Necessity
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his discussion of the problem of evil, namely whether - given what he calls the "doctrine of necessity - God is responsible for the evil or bad actions human beings do. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www...
2021-Mar-15 • 18 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Uniformity Of Human Nature
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on Hume's assertion that we can understand and predict human actions based on general motives because human nature is the same across times and cultures To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A...
2021-Mar-13 • 14 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - The Doctrine Of Necessity
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on what Hume calls the "doctrine of necessity" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisa...
2021-Mar-12 • 14 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Possible Source Of Idea Of Power
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on where we get our conception of power or cause from. Hume considers whether we could get this notion from observing material bodies and their interactions, the interaction between our minds and our bodies, or the operations of the mind, specifically the will. He rejects each of these and says that it comes instead from our custom or habit of expecting necess...
2021-Mar-11 • 16 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Probability Of Chance And Causes
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on discussion in section 6 about what probability really means in relation to how we human beings imagine chance and causality at work To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can...
2021-Mar-09 • 15 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Belief And The Association Of Ideas
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on how the three main modes of association of ideas - resemblance, contiguity in space and time, and cause and effect (or constant conjunction) lead us to have the feeling or sentiment of belief. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - ...
2021-Mar-07 • 14 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - The Feeling Of Belief
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on what distinguishes what goes on in our belief that something is the case or is real, from the workings of the imagination or fancy. In Hume's view the key difference is that belief is accompanied by a feeling or sentiment associated with it. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contributi...
2021-Mar-03 • 17 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - The Principle Of Custom Or Habit
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on the principle that allows us to step beyond the confines of present sense-perception and past memory in "matters of fact" or "real existence". This is the principle of custom or habit, which inclines us to assume that the future will resemble the past. This principle, for Hume, lies at the basis of our association of ideas along the lines of cause and effe...
2021-Mar-02 • 16 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Experience And Cause And Effect
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his contention that we cannot know causes and effects in any a priori way (or as a relation between ideas), but only through experience, that is, in a posteriori manners. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - w...
2021-Feb-28 • 14 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Relations Of Ideas And Matters Of Fact
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his distinction between relations of ideas and matters of fact, which plays a central role in his philosophy. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philoso...
2021-Feb-26 • 12 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Regarding Human Understanding - The Shade Of Blue Example
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on the exception he makes to his general rule that ideas must come in some way from experience, the famous "missing shade of blue" example. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM Yo...
2021-Feb-25 • 16 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Association Of Ideas
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on the three main ways in which Hume thinks that ideas are associated within the human mind - Resemblance, Contiguity, and Cause and Effect To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM Yo...
2021-Feb-24 • 14 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Empiricism, Ideas, And Impressions
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on the basics of his Empiricist epistemology, specifically how it bears upon the relation between ideas and impressions. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500...
2021-Feb-23 • 14 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Impressions And Ideas Of The Mind
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his important distinction between what he terms ideas and impressions of the mind. Many ideas are in some way copies or representations of the impressions we experience. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - w...
2021-Feb-21 • 22 minutes
Seneca, Letter 120 - Clarifying The Virtues - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 120 It focuses specifically on the Stoic perspective that holds virtue to be the genuine good for human beings, by contrast to other points of view that assert there are other genuine goods. He also examines where our conception of virtue and moral goodness (the honestum) come from, and argues that it does not arise in us from nature itself, but rather through "analogy", drawn from our experien...
2021-Feb-20 • 17 minutes
Seneca, Letter 113 - Virtue, Life, And Unity Of The Mind - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 113 It focuses specifically on his discussions of a common Stoic position which he himself considers mistaken - the notion that the virtues (wisdom, justice, courage, temperance) are themselves living creatures (animalia) within the mind (animus). He presents and criticizes two common Stoic arguments for this position, and then provides a number of arguments of his own against the position To ...
2021-Feb-18 • 19 minutes
Seneca, Letter 89 - Divisions Of Philosophy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 89 It focuses specifically what had by his time become a common way of dividing the discipline of philosophy - into Ethics, Physics, and Logic. He explains what each of these fields includes. He also discusses why other schools attempts to add more divisions or to get rid of one or two of the three divisions. The three fields can be subdivided further, and his treatment of Ethics by breaking...
2021-Feb-18 • 23 minutes
Seneca, Letter 87 - The Simple Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 87 It focuses specifically on the Stoic perspective on wealth (including property and possessions), which is that it is not actually a good, but rather just a preferred indifferent. He examines a number of Stoic and other syllogisms aimed at arguing that wealth is not a good, and provides further explanations of them. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler ...
2021-Feb-13 • 20 minutes
Seneca, Letter 74 - Virtue And Goods - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 74 It focuses specifically on his discussion of the nature of virtue according to the Stoics, and why virtue is the genuine good, the "honorable" (honestum). According to him, those who view other things like wealth, pleasure, honor, or the body as goods are mistaken and set themselves up for misery by subjecting themselves to fortune. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.pa...
2021-Feb-11 • 19 minutes
Seneca, Letter 71 - The Supreme Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 71 It focuses specifically on his discussion of the supreme or highest good for human beings, which is what is honorable (honestum), or virtue. Virtue is what renders other things that are good, good - like good actions, good people, and so on. He also discusses a Stoic paradox, namely that all goods, insofar as they are good, are equal - and how virtue provides a measure for everything else....
2021-Feb-09 • 22 minutes
Seneca, Letter 66 - Virtue And Kinds Of Goods - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 66 It discusses how two key Stoic ideas about virtue and goods come together. One of these is the paradoxical assertion that all goods are equal, and the other is that there are three kinds of goods. Seneca addresses this by arguing that virtue is the highest good which makes other things good, that virtue as such is always equal, never greater or lesser, and that the circumstances or matters i...
2021-Feb-08 • 13 minutes
Seneca, Letter 65 - Platonic, Aristotelian, And Stoic Causes - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 65 It focuses specifically on his discussions of the types of causes understood from Stoic, Aristotelian, and Platonic perspectives. Seneca enumerates the four Aristotelian causes - material, efficient, formal, and final and adds to these the Platonic model or exemplar. From the Stoic perspective, none of these, except for the efficient cause - understood as the productive reason (ratio effici...
2021-Feb-07 • 17 minutes
Seneca, Letter 58 - Types Of Being - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 58 It discusses several important issues in metaphysics, spurred by considering 6 different types of things Plato is said to have considered to be beings or to have being. Seneca begins with some considerations about the Latin and Greek languages, about about the terms essentia, ousia, to on, and quod est, and then discusses what genera and species are, and how they are arranged in relation to ...
2021-Feb-05 • 13 minutes
Seneca, Letter 33 - Stoicism, System, And Maxims - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's Letters, this one looking at Letter 33 It focuses specifically on his response to Lucilius, who is asking him for maxims, or what we would nowadays call quotes or sound bites - short and catchy passages from Stoic texts that could be memorized as summaries of the doctrine. Seneca views Stoicism as a systematic philosophy, unable to be summed up in maxims, and provides several reasons why - although maxims are suitable for childre...
2021-Feb-05 • 16 minutes
Plato, The Meno - Knowledge And Right Opinion - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Meno. It focuses specifically on the distinction which Socrates makes there - as well as in other works - between Knowledge and Right Opinion To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube cha...
2021-Feb-02 • 12 minutes
Plato, The Meno - Can Virtue Be Taught? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Meno. It focuses specifically on his discussion in the second half of the dialogue bearing on whether virtue can be taught - and if so, who actually does teach it. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos i...
2021-Jan-31 • 22 minutes
Plato, The Meno - Goods, Knowledge, And Desire
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Meno. Through a close reading of the text, this lecture brings together a number of passages treating several common themes -- what makes good things good for us, our desires for good or bad things, and the knowledge or wisdom we possess. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee -...
2021-Jan-30 • 12 minutes
Plato, The Meno - The Doctrine Of Recollection - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Meno. It focuses specifically on. the Platonic doctrine of recollection as discussed by Socrates in that dialogue. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/...
2021-Jan-28 • 11 minutes
Plato, The Meno - The Meno Paradox - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Meno. It focuses specifically on the famous conundrum called the Meno Paradox, which maintains that a person cannot seek to acquire knowledge of something they do not already know. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 ph...
2021-Jan-26 • 8 minutes
Plato, The Meno - Socrates The Stingray - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Meno. It focuses specifically on a metaphor used in the dialogue -- Socrates as a "stingray", saying that he is like an animal that stuns its prey, in this case stunning those who think they possess knowledge, and making them unable to use or demonstrate the knowledge they supposedly possess To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do s...
2021-Jan-25 • 13 minutes
Plato, The Meno - Attempts To Define Virtue
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's dialogue, the Meno. It focuses specifically on the attempts made in that dialogue to define "virtue," and looks at Socrates' objections to Meno's proposed definitions. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main ...
2021-Jan-24 • 17 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Avoiding Friendship To Be Free - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion of a position on friendship that views it as unnecessary and even detrimental for the good life, the idea being that friendship requires us to care for others and to be involved in their affairs, whereas genuine happiness would be freedom from care and troubles. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd l...
2021-Jan-24 • 14 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Slowly Ending Friendships - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his advice about ending friendships slowly and carefully, rather than all at once and precipitously To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in m...
2021-Jan-22 • 15 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Choosing Friends Carefully - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion of why it is important to choose friends carefully. Cicero suggests that we need to test those with who we are in deepening relationships with, before trusting them entirely. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at ...
2021-Jan-21 • 15 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Loving Things Vs. Loving Persons - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion about what it is that people love in their friendships, whether it is things or persons. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos ...
2021-Jan-19 • 14 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Criticizing Friends - Sadler's Lectures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion . . . . To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Cicero's O...
2021-Jan-16 • 14 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Friendship, Superiority, And Inferiority - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion of superiority and inferiority between the partners within a friendship, and what guidelines friends ought to observe. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can fin...
2021-Jan-14 • 14 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Friendship Arising From Nature - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion of how the roots of genuine friendship - which is based in significant part on the perception of virtue - is based upon nature. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM Yo...
2021-Jan-13 • 12 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Old Friends And New Friends - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion about whether we ought to give priority to new friends or to old friends. Ideally, one would be open to new friendships with good prospects for genuine friendship and also maintain one's old friendships as well. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so he...
2021-Jan-11 • 13 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Limits On Loyalty To Friends - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion of the limits we ought to observe when friends ask us to do wrong, unjust, injurious, or harmful actions. Friends may ask us to do these things out of a sense of loyalty or affection towards them, or even demand them as a test of that To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contrib...
2021-Jan-10 • 13 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Three Mistaken Views On Friendship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion of three common but mistaken limitations that many people place upon friendships, and why each of these represents a mistaken perspective. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A...
2021-Jan-10 • 15 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - The Advantages Of Friendship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion of the advantages (utilitates) of friendship, which can generally only be enjoyed within the scope of a genuine friendship. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You c...
2021-Jan-08 • 14 minutes
Cicero, On Friendship - Defining Genuine Friendship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Friendship Specifically it examines his discussion of the nature of genuine friendship. Cicero takes it to involve accord or agreement, mutual good will, and affection. Cicero also maintains that friendship in any full sense can only develop and exist between good people To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ca...
2021-Jan-07 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 2 - Moral Emotions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion in book 2 of several emotional states with moral significance To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube chann...
2021-Jan-05 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 2 - Intrinsically Bad Actions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion in book 2 of certain actions and emotional states that are intrinsically bad. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my ma...
2021-Jan-04 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 2 - Virtue, Craft, And Knowledge - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion in book 2 about his notion of virtue and its connection with craft (tekhne) and knowledge. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy vi...
2021-Jan-03 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics - Virtue As A Norm For Evaluation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion in book 2 of how the virtues function as a norm for evaluation of actions, patterns of behavior, and intentions To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find o...
2021-Jan-01 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics - Pleasure, Pain, Virtue, And Vice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion in book 2 of of the importance of pleasure and pain for virtue and vice To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main You...
2020-Dec-30 • 16 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 2 - Virtue As The Mean - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion in book 2 of the notion of moral virtues as mean or middle states between vices of excess and of deficiency. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over ...
2020-Dec-29 • 17 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 2 - Virtue As Habitual Disposition - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion in book 2 of the question: what is a virtue? Aristotle treats virtues and vices as habitual dispositions (hexeis, in Greek) -- so what precisely does that mean? To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee...
2020-Dec-27 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 2 - Virtue And Human Nature - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion in book 2 of of the relation between moral virtue and human nature To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube...
2020-Dec-26 • 18 minutes
Fyodor Dostoevsky, Brothers Karamazov - Freeing People Of Freedom - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's work,The Brothers Karamazov, focusing on the fifth chapter of the fifth book, titled "The Grand Inquisitor", during which Ivan and Alyosha are engaged in philosophical discussion. Specifically it examines This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's work,The Brothers Karamazov, focusing on the fifth chapter of the fifth book, titled "The Grand Inquisitor", during which Ivan and Alyosha...
2020-Dec-24 • 14 minutes
Fyodor Dostoevsky, Brothers Karamazov - Unity, Rule, And Freedom - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's work,The Brothers Karamazov, focusing on the fifth chapter of the fifth book, titled "The Grand Inquisitor", during which Ivan and Alyosha are engaged in philosophical discussion. Specifically it examines the third great temptation or question that the Grand Inquisitor argues Christ dealt with wrongly, the none bearing on rulership and power To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you...
2020-Dec-23 • 15 minutes
Fyodor Dostoevsky, Brothers Karamazov - Miracles, Signs, And Freedom - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's work,The Brothers Karamazov, focusing on the fifth chapter of the fifth book, titled "The Grand Inquisitor", during which Ivan and Alyosha are engaged in philosophical discussion. Specifically it examines the Grand Inquisitor's argument with Christ about why he should have addressed the second great "temptation" or question differently, and why the grand inquisitor and his colleagues have used miracle, mystery, and authorit...
2020-Dec-22 • 14 minutes
Fyodor Dostoevsky, Brothers Karamazov - Food And Freedom - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's work,The Brothers Karamazov, focusing on the fifth chapter of the fifth book, titled "The Grand Inquisitor", during which Ivan and Alyosha are engaged in philosophical discussion. Specifically it examines the Grand Inquisitor's discussion of the first "temptation" or "question", about turning stones into loaves of bread. This has to do with the human tendency to give their allegiance and freedom to those who supply their bo...
2020-Dec-21 • 15 minutes
Fyodor Dostoevsky, Brothers Karamazov - Christ's Coming And The Grand Inquisitor
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's work,The Brothers Karamazov, focusing on the fifth chapter of the fifth book, titled "The Grand Inquisitor", during which Ivan and Alyosha are engaged in philosophical discussion. Specifically it examines the Ivan's introduction of the Grand Inquisitor, in the "poem" of that title. Ivan introduces this figure in response to Alyosha's invocation of Christ in the preceding chapter. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patre...
2020-Dec-20 • 16 minutes
Fyodor Dostoevsky, Brothers Karamazov - Cosmic Justice And Ivan's Rebellion
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's work,The Brothers Karamazov, focusing on the fourth chapter of the fifth book, titled "Rebellion", during which Ivan and Alyosha are engaged in philosophical discussion. Specifically it examines the problem and paradox Ivan raises in his conversation with his brother Alyosha, namely that of the suffering of children, and the cruelty adults display to them. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com...
2020-Dec-19 • 13 minutes
Fyodor Dostoevsky, Brothers Karamazov - Richard's Abuse, Conversion, And Execution
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's work,The Brothers Karamazov, focusing on the fourth chapter of the fifth book, titled "Rebellion", during which Ivan and Alyosha are engaged in philosophical discussion. Specifically it examines the portion of Ivan's argument where he discusses the case of the Swiss boy who is neglected and abused by his foster parents, who becomes a criminal, converts to Christianity in prison, and then is executed. To support my ongoing ...
2020-Dec-18 • 18 minutes
Fyodor Dostoevsky, Brothers Karamazov - Children, Cruelty, And Suffering - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's work,The Brothers Karamazov, focusing on the fourth chapter of the fifth book, titled "Rebellion", during which Ivan and Alyosha are engaged in philosophical discussion. Specifically it examines the argument or complaint that Ivan makes about God, stemming from something like the philosophical problem of evil, but with a somewhat different conclusion, in his conversation with his brother Alyosha. To support my ongoing work...
2020-Dec-16 • 10 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - The Nothing, Selfhood, And Freedom - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine his exposition of the relationship of what he terms "the Nothing", and the freedom and selfhood of Dasein, or human being. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - https://www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You....
2020-Dec-15 • 13 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - Previous Metaphysical Views On Nothing - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine his discussion of the previous metaphysical interpretations - in Heidegger's view, misinterpretations - of the Nothing, found in ancient philosophy, Christian thought, and Hegel's Science of Logic. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/...
2020-Dec-14 • 13 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - Original Anxiety And Everydayness
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine Heidegger's focus on the mood or affective state of anxiety (Angst), by looking at what he calls "original anxiety", how it can break forth, and how most people manage to repress or distract themselves from it. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - ww...
2020-Dec-12 • 12 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - Mood and The Totality Of Beings - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine Heidegger's discussion of how mood or attunement - affective states - allow us to do what the intellect does not, to be placed within the totality of beings as a whole. Certain moods do this in particularly important ways, and he discusses boredom and joy at this point - he will shortly discuss that of anxiety as well. To support my ongoing work, go to...
2020-Dec-10 • 17 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - Sciences, Logic, And The Nothing
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine Heidegger's discussion early on about the sciences as central to our way of grasping and understanding beings in modernity, the scope of logic, and what both of them leave out - the nothing. . . . To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Re...
2020-Dec-08 • 12 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - Modalities Of Nihilative Behavior - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine Heidegger's examines his exposition of what the Nothing does, i.e. nihilation, in terms of different modalities of nihilative behavior. This also includes the contribution or collaboration of Dasein in nihilation. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here ...
2020-Dec-07 • 10 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - The Nothing And Nihilation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine Heidegger's exposition of what the Nothing does, i.e. nihilation. (This is a term that translates the German neologism "nichten"). Heidegger views nihilation as more original than negation. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonI...
2020-Dec-06 • 13 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - The Mood Of Anxiety - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine Heidegger's discussion of how one particular mood or affective state - anxiety -allow us to do what the intellect does not, to be placed within the totality of beings as a whole - and thereby the Nothing. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www....
2020-Dec-06 • 10 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - The Nothing, Not, And Negation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine Heidegger's discussion about the relationship between what he terms "the nothing" and the operation or judgement of negation, including the "not". In Heidegger's view, the priority that the intellect and logic give to negation, deriving nothing from that, is mistaken and needs to be reversed To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patre...
2020-Dec-04 • 13 minutes
Martin Heidegger, What Is Metaphysics - The Nature Of Metaphysical Inquiry - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his centrally important essay "What Is Metaphysics?" Here we examine Heidegger's discussion about the nature and scope of metaphysical inquiry. Heidegger outlines two conditions for genuine metaphysical inquiry, and discusses how metaphysics is essential for human beings. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.payp...
2020-Dec-03 • 17 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, The Second Sex - Duplicity Between The Sexes
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beavoir's book, The Second Sex It focuses specifically on her her examination of relations between men and women, in which members of both sides are involved in duplicity. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buy...
2020-Dec-02 • 13 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, The Second Sex - Life, Thought, And Logic
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beavoir's book, The Second Sex It focuses specifically on her examination of how women get accused of being illogical, simply contrary, resentful, or obstinate. She argues that women are not illogical or against logic per se, but find themselves opposed to uses of logic and thought that set them at a disadvantage. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site -...
2020-Dec-01 • 16 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, The Second Sex - Woman Immanence And Things
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beavoir's book, The Second Sex It focuses specifically on her examination of transcendence and immanence and the distinction between men and women. In her view, women are typically denied the transcendence accorded to men as human beings, and come to be objectified as things. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like t...
2020-Dec-01 • 12 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, The Second Sex - Superiority, Inferiority, And Equality
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beavoir's book, The Second Sex It focuses specifically on her examination of the modalities of superiority, equality, and inferiority for men and women. Her existentialist stance involves rejection of either men or women making claims to being superior as a sex. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a dir...
2020-Nov-29 • 17 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, The Second Sex - Male Assertions Of Female Inferiority
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Second Sex It focuses specifically on her critical examination of the history of male assertions of female inferiority. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can ...
2020-Nov-28 • 18 minutes
Simone De Beauvoir, The Second Sex - Women As Other
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century existentialist and feminist philosopher, novelist, essayist, and playwright Simone de Beavoir's book, The Second Sex It focuses specifically on her discussion of women as being the Other. Her examination also discusses other modes of alterity, in which political power, class or race function as the bases for making some group of people the Other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direc...
2020-Nov-28 • 18 minutes
Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State Utopia - The Experience Machine - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, Robert Nozick's book Anarchy, State, and Utopia Specifically it examines his discussion of the "Experience Machine", in which Nozick proposes a thought experiment involving a machine that would allow a person to have any experiences they choose, for an entire lifetime if they wish. He also brings up the possibility of other machines, including a Transformation Machine and a Results Machine. The key question is whether a person would use...
2020-Nov-27 • 11 minutes
David Hume, Treatise Of Human Nature - Calm Passions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher, essayist, and historian, David Hume's work A Treatise of Human Nature Specifically it examines his discussion of what he terms the "calm passions", which include "benevolence and resentment, the love of life, and kindness to children; or the general appetite to good, and aversion to evil". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypa...
2020-Nov-26 • 16 minutes
David Hume, Treatise Of Human Nature - Conflicts Between Reason And Passion - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher, essayist, and historian, David Hume's work A Treatise of Human Nature Specifically it examines his discussion of the relation between reason and passion, which many portray as a conflict between those. Hume famously asserts: "We speak not strictly and philosophically when we talk of the combat of passion and of reason. Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and o...
2020-Nov-24 • 13 minutes
David Hume, Treatise Of Human Nature - Reason, Will, And Action - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher, essayist, and historian, David Hume's work A Treatise of Human Nature Specifically it examines his discussion about the role that reason plays in determining our wills to action, by contrast to the passions, emotions, or desires. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4q...
2020-Nov-23 • 24 minutes
Gabriel Marcel, On The Ontological Mystery - Recollection And Assurance - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, playwright, and musician, Gabriel Marcel's essay Concrete Approaches to Investigating the Ontological Mystery. Specifically it examines his discussion of mystery as metaproblematic and the assurance it is encountered with. This leads into discussion of recollection (receuillement in French) and its role in helping us apprehend mysteries and our involvement in them. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadle...
2020-Nov-21 • 22 minutes
Gabriel Marcel, On The Ontological Mystery - Availability (Disponibilité)- Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century philosopher, playwright, and musician, Gabriel Marcel's essay Concrete Approaches to Investigating the Ontological Mystery. Specifically it examines his discussion "availability" (disponibilité, in French) to other people. Another way of understanding this would be in relation to the value or virtue of charity or agape. Marcel also discusses the relation between a lack of availability and self-centeredness and alienation. To support my ongoing work,...
2020-Nov-20 • 13 minutes
G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology Of Spirit - The Slave's Development - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century German Idealist philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's work, the Phenomenology of Spirit It focuses specifically on his discussion of the dialectical development of the Slave's consciousness in the famous Master-Slave dialectic. Three things are required for this development of consciousness for-itself, i.e, independent consciousness to take place: Fear, Service, and Work. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sa...
2020-Nov-19 • 12 minutes
G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology Of Spirit - The Master's Position - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century German Idealist philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's work, the Phenomenology of Spirit It focuses specifically on his discussion of the position of the Master in the famous Master-Slave dialectic, which involves enjoying the recognition coming from the slave, but also the enjoyment of the products worked upon by the slave. The master is able to satisfy his or her desire, but does not develop dialectically any further. To support my ongoing w...
2020-Nov-18 • 13 minutes
G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology Of Spirit - Self - Consciousness And The Struggle To The Death
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century German Idealist philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's work, the Phenomenology of Spirit It focuses specifically on his discussion bearing upon the famous "struggle to the death" occurring between two self-consciousnesses, each of which desires its recognition from the other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or a...
2020-Nov-17 • 8 minutes
G.W.F Hegel, Phenomenology Of Spirit - Self-Consciousness And Mediation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century German Idealist philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's work, the Phenomenology of Spirit It focuses specifically on his discussion of how self-consciousness is mediated by another self-consciousness. In other terms, self-consciousness exists as such only in relation to its other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO ...
2020-Nov-16 • 14 minutes
G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology Of Spirit - Ambiguity & Duplication Of Self-Consciousness
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century German Idealist philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's work, the Phenomenology of Spirit It focuses specifically on his his discussion bearing upon the duplication (or doubling) of self-consciousness in relation to its other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM ...
2020-Nov-16 • 11 minutes
G.W.F Hegel, Phenomenology Of Spirit - Self-Consciousness, Desire, And Spirit - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century German Idealist philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's work, the Phenomenology of Spirit It focuses specifically on his discussion bearing upon the nature of self-consciousness as desire for the other. The desire (Begierde) is actually for recognition (Anerkennen) from the other. Self-consciousness cannot be what it is - cannot be related to itself, and understand itself adequately - without its other. Following out this dialectic will eventu...
2020-Nov-13 • 14 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - Justice And Utility - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically on chapter 5, where he discusses the relationship between justice and utility. In doing so, he addresses some common criticisms of utilitarianism moral theory. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee...
2020-Nov-11 • 10 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - What Having A Right Means - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically on chapter 5, where he discusses the nature of rights. Mill views rights as correlative to duties, and as requiring enforcement by society To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You ca...
2020-Nov-08 • 16 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - Five Conceptions Of Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically on chapter 5, where Mill distinguishes five common senses of "justice" (and correlatively "injustice"): respecting legal rights, respecting moral rights, giving people what they deserve, honoring commitments, and impartiality. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here ...
2020-Nov-06 • 15 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - Happiness, Goods, And Virtue - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically on chapter 4, where Mill discusses the nature of happiness and argues that virtue can -- and ought to -- be an important component in happiness. He also explains his views on how virtue comes to be viewed as a intrinsic good to human beings, through the agency of habit. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to ma...
2020-Nov-06 • 16 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism, Sanctions, And Duty - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically on on chapter 3, where Mill starts out by discussing the "sanctions" (a term he is taking from Bentham) providing a basis for accepting Utilitarianism, and then discusses his view of the nature of duty, the sense of obligation it creates in a person, and the role of habit in establishing this notion. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.c...
2020-Nov-01 • 16 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - The Ideal Judge Of Pleasures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically his discussion in chapter 2, where, after introducing his distinction between higher and lower pleasures, Mill discusses what sorts of people are able to be good judges of the quality of pleasures. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or...
2020-Oct-31 • 21 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - Responses To Criticisms Of Utilitarianism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically his discussion in the second chapter, where he reviews and then responds to common criticisms of Utilitarian moral theory made in his time, most of which remain relevant in our own time. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeAC...
2020-Oct-30 • 11 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - Why People Do Not Appreciate Higher Pleasures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically his discussion in chapter 2, in which Mill discusses why many people do not in fact prefer qualitatively higher pleasures to lower pleasures. He discusses cases of weakness of will, and cases where a person loses his or her capacity to appreciate higher pleasures. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a d...
2020-Oct-29 • 17 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - Qualitatively Higher And Lower Pleasures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically his discussion in chapter 2, where, after introducing his distinction between higher and lower pleasures, Mill discusses difference in quality of pleasures. There are higher pleasures - associated with higher faculties of the human being - and lower pleasures - associated with lower faculties. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sad...
2020-Oct-27 • 13 minutes
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism As Basis For Moral Theories - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 19th century Utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill's work, Utilitarianism It focuses specifically his discussion in the first chapter, where Mill attempts to argue that Utilitarianism really underlies other moral theories, insofar as they actually are moral theories. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buyme...
2020-Oct-22 • 11 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, On Free Choice Of Will Book 1 - Proper Order In A Human Being
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, On Free Choice of the Will. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 1 about the proper ordering of the faculties within a human being that aligns that person with the eternal law. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4...
2020-Oct-20 • 13 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, On Free Choice Of Will Book 1 - The Will And The Virtues
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, On Free Choice of the Will. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 1 about the role that the cardinal virtues - temperance, courage, justice, and prudence - play in moral life and in the good will. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www...
2020-Oct-19 • 13 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, On Free Choice Of Will Book 1 - What A Good Will Is - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, On Free Choice of the Will. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 1 about the good will and what it consists in. For Augustine the good will in not only a will by which we strive to live rightly, in accordance with the eternal law, but also is something reflexive - that is, the good will wills to maintain itself when it has to choose between the good will and temporal goods. To suppor...
2020-Oct-15 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, On Free Choice Of The Will Book 1 - Temporal Law And Eternal Law
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, On Free Choice of the Will. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 1 about the distinction between eternal law and temporal law. The eternal law, also known as the law of reason, provides unchanging norms for the changing temporal law. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal....
2020-Oct-14 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo,On Free Choice Of Will Book 1 - Christian Faith And Human Reason
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, On Free Choice of the Will. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 1 about the interaction between Christian faith and human reason in that text. Augustine takes as a starting point the scriptural passage, "Unless you believe, you will not understand", and interprets it in light of a human reason which in some manner cooperates with the divine, which aids it in its quest for truth To su...
2020-Oct-13 • 15 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, On Free Choice Of Will Book 1 - The Causes Of Wrongdoing
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, On Free Choice of the Will. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 1 about what the source of the wrongness of wrongdoing is. Augustine and his student, Evodius discuss whether it is violation of the law or other social norms, passion (libido), desire, or fear, or - as it ultimately turns out to be - the human will. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sad...
2020-Oct-11 • 15 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 11 - Goodness Of Creation And Natural Evil
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 11 bearing on the problem of evil, namely why, if there is a perfectly good, omniscient, and omnipotent God, evil exists in the world. One way of initially addressing this is to make the distinction between moral evil, which depends upon the wills of creatures, and natural evil, which has to do with the workings of the natural world...
2020-Oct-09 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 11 - Creation, Time, And Space
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 11 bearing on the understanding of the Genesis passage "in the beginning, God created the heavens and earth", to which he provides a metaphysical interpretation. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or...
2020-Oct-09 • 11 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 11 - Existence, Knowledge, And Love
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 11 which starts with an observation about how human beings are created in the image of God, i.e. the Trinity. Augustine then sets out the structure of the human being in trinitarian or triadic terms of existence, knowledge, and love. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a...
2020-Oct-07 • 15 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 11 - Knowledge Of God And The Mediator
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 11 about the need for a "mediator" in order for human beings to learn and understand as full a set of truths about the divine as they are capable. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee -...
2020-Oct-05 • 16 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 5 - Divine Foreknowledge And Human Free Will
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically his discussion in book 5 about whether divine foreknowledge and human free will are compatible and whether they are the case or not. He takes Marcus Tullius Cicero and the Stoics as the interlocutors whose positions he argues against. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, ...
2020-Oct-04 • 13 minutes
A J Ayer Language Truth And Logic - Ethics And Social Sciences
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically on his contention that - after examining the field of ethics through an emotivist lens, ethics ought properly be viewed as falling within the scope of the social sciences, psychology and sociology in particular. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypa...
2020-Oct-02 • 12 minutes
A J Ayer Language Truth And Logic - Moral Disagreement, Fact, And Value
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically his discussion in chapter 6 about what occurs when we seem to be involved in moral disagreements. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my ...
2020-Oct-01 • 15 minutes
A J Ayer Language Truth And Logic - Ethical Terms And Emotion
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically on the connections he sees between ethical terms and emotion. Ayer endorses a position in Ethics typically called "emotivism". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over...
2020-Sep-27 • 14 minutes
A J Ayer Language Truth And Logic - Subjectivist, Utilitarian, and Absolutist Ethics
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically on the criticisms of three main positions in Ethics which he views as potential rivals to his own emotivist perspective. He calls these subjectivist, utilitarian, and absolutist perspectives. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at...
2020-Sep-27 • 12 minutes
A J Ayer Language Truth And Logic - Four Classes Of Ethical Expressions
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th century Analytic philosopher, A.J. Ayer's book Language, Truth, and Logic It focuses specifically on the distinctions he makes between four kinds of ethical expressions: expressions involving definitions; phenomena describing moral experience, exhortations to moral virtues, and actual ethical judgements. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/R...
2020-Sep-22 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 1 - Happiness, The Dead, And The Living
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion of whether we must wait until someone is dead to call that person "happy", and the issue of whether the fortunes of descendants affect the happiness of dead ancestors, in book 1. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or...
2020-Sep-21 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 1 - External Goods And Happiness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion of the relation between external goods (including relations with other people) and happiness in book 1. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 ...
2020-Sep-20 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 1 - What Is Happiness? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion about the different views human beings have about the nature of happiness, and what genuine human happiness consists in To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can...
2020-Sep-19 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 1 - Good Spoken Of In Many Ways - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses upon his discussion of how good is spoken of in multiple ways, by reference to the categories in book 1. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos i...
2020-Sep-18 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 1 - Criticism Of The Platonic Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it discusses his criticism of the Platonic conception of the Form of the Good in book 1. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel -...
2020-Sep-17 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics bk 1 - Happiness & The Function Of A Human Being - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses focuses upon his discussion about the (proper) function of a human being and what that tells us about the nature of human happiness To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find ove...
2020-Sep-16 • 22 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 1 - Activities, Arts, And Purposes - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses focuses upon his discussion of activities, arts, sciences, and the like as purposive activities, brought up in the very first paragraph of the work To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM ...
2020-Sep-14 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 1 - Principles And Exactness In Ethics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics Specifically it focuses focuses upon his discussion of how first principles are derived and used, and what degree of exactness is possible, within the discipline of ethics, in book 1. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.co...
2020-Sep-11 • 10 minutes
Jeremy Bentham, Introduction To Principles - Partial And Extensive Benevolence
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham's work, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Here we examine the distinction he makes between partial and extensive benevolence. Partial Benevolence is a motivation which involves taking pleasure in helping -- producing pleasure or removing pain -- a limited portion of the larger community. Extensive Benevolence looks to the interests of the entire community concerned. To support my ongoing work, go to ...
2020-Sep-10 • 15 minutes
Jeremy Bentham, Introduction To Principles - Motives In Utilitarianism
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham's work, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Here we examine the different main motives for human actions and choices which Bentham distinguishes. It also discusses how these motives can be evaluated in moral terms. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - ww...
2020-Sep-09 • 19 minutes
Jeremy Bentham, Introduction To Principles - Intentions, Motives, Dispositions
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham's work, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Here we examine his discussion of Intentions, Motives, and Dispositions. He examines what they are, and addresses how they can be evaluated morally. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4qu...
2020-Sep-07 • 22 minutes
Jeremy Bentham, Introduction To Principles - Distinctive Kinds Of Pleasure And Pain
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham's work, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Here we run through the many different main types of pleasures and pains which he discusses in chapter 5 of that work To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 ph...
2020-Sep-07 • 21 minutes
Jeremy Bentham, Introduction To Principles - Pleasure, Pain, And Utility - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham's work, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Here we focus in particular on Bentham's commitment to ethical hedonism, and his refinement of the notion of "utility", absolutely central to the Utilitarian philosophical tradition. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeAC...
2020-Sep-04 • 11 minutes
Jeremy Bentham, Introduction To Principles - Principles Opposed To Utility
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham's work, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Here we focus in particular on his discussion of three principles for moral decision making that would seem to be opposed to the principle of utility. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4q...
2020-Sep-03 • 7 minutes
Jeremy Bentham, Introduction To Principles - Utilitarianism As A Moral Theory
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham's work, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Here we focus in particular on his discussion of the basic notion of his version of Utilitarianism as a moral theory. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 ph...
2020-Sep-02 • 18 minutes
Peter Singer, Biological Basis Of Ethics - Group Altruism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the contemporary Utilitarian philosopher, Peter Singer's essay The Biological Basis of Ethics, excerpted from his book, The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology Here we focus in particular on his discussion of group altruism, which he distinguishes from kin altruism and reciprocal altruism. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at B...
2020-Sep-01 • 12 minutes
Peter Singer, Biological Basis Of Ethics - Reciprocal Altruism & Prisoners Dilemma
This lecture discusses key ideas from the contemporary Utilitarian philosopher, Peter Singer's essay The Biological Basis of Ethics, excerpted from his book, The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology Here we focus in particular on his discussion of the problem the prisoner's dilemma raises for egoists, and how reciprocal altruism provides a resolution to the dilemma. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so h...
2020-Aug-30 • 16 minutes
Peter Singer, Biological Basis Of Ethics - Motivation And Reciprocal Altruism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the contemporary Utilitarian philosopher, Peter Singer's essay The Biological Basis of Ethics, excerpted from his book, The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology Here we focus in particular on his discussion of how perceived motivation plays a role in reciprocal altruism To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buym...
2020-Aug-28 • 11 minutes
Peter Singer, Biological Basis Of Ethics - Reciprocal Altruism As A Norm - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the contemporary Utilitarian philosopher, Peter Singer's essay The Biological Basis of Ethics, excerpted from his book, The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology Here we focus in particular on his discussion about how reciprocal altruism functions as an ethical norm in many settings. He also engages in some speculation about how evolutionary developments could have brought this about for human beings To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon...
2020-Aug-27 • 16 minutes
Peter Singer, Biological Basis Of Ethics - Kin Altruism And The Family - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the contemporary Utilitarian philosopher, Peter Singer's essay The Biological Basis of Ethics, excerpted from his book, The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology Here we focus in particular on his discussion of altruistic behavior extended towards family members or "kin", the roles it plays in ethics, and speculations about the basis of kin altruism. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribu...
2020-Aug-26 • 17 minutes
Heraclitus, Fragments - The Meaning of the Logos - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient pre-Socratic philosopher, Heraclitus of Ephesus (sometimes called "the obscure"). Here we focus in particular on those of his fragments which have to do with what he calls "the logos". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy videos in my main Yo...
2020-Aug-25 • 16 minutes
Heraclitus, Fragments - Fire, The Elements, And The Cosmos - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient pre-Socratic philosopher, Heraclitus of Ephesus (sometimes called "the obscure"). Here we focus in particular on those of his fragments which have to do with fire and the other three elements (air, water, earth), and with the ordering of cosmic processes To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee....
2020-Aug-24 • 20 minutes
Heraclitus, Fragments - The Divine And The Human - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient pre-Socratic philosopher, Heraclitus of Ephesus (sometimes called "the obscure"). Here we focus in particular on those of his fragments which have to do with the divine (the daimon, theos, or Zeus in Greek) and its relations with the human. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM ...
2020-Aug-23 • 18 minutes
Heraclitus, Fragments - Strife, Opposition, And Harmony - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient pre-Socratic philosopher, Heraclitus of Ephesus (sometimes called "the obscure"). Here we focus in particular on those of his fragments which have to do with the war, strife, opposition, and harmony - a set of key ideas that run through his thought about the world, reality, and human beings To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - o...
2020-Aug-22 • 16 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 4 - Cardinal Virtues And Parts Of The Soul - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 4. Specifically it examines the four "cardinal virtues" -- justice, wisdom, courage, and temperance -- and how they correlate with parts of the soul To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosoph...
2020-Aug-20 • 16 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 4 - Ideal City And Parts Of The Soul - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 4. Specifically it examines Plato's analogy between the ideal city and the human soul. Both the city and the soul turn out to have three main parts, each of which has its proper function. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4q...
2020-Aug-17 • 14 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 4 - The Virtue Of Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 4. Specifically it examines his discussion of what the virtue of justice is and where it is situated within the ideal city and in the human soul. As it turns out, justice is different than the other three virtues - wisdom, courage, and temperance, in that it is located in the proper relations of the parts of the soul to each other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.co...
2020-Aug-15 • 14 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 4 - The Virtue Of Temperance - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 4. Specifically it examines his discussion of what the virtue of temperance is and where it is situated within the ideal city and in the human soul To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy...
2020-Aug-14 • 14 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 4 - The Virtue Of Courage - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 4. Specifically it examines his discussion of what the virtue of courage is and where it is situated within the ideal city and in the human soul To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 philosophy vi...
2020-Aug-13 • 13 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 4 - Injustice, Overreaching, And Faction - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 4. Specifically it examines his discussion about how things go wrong in the human soul when the three parts Plato distinguishes - the rational part, the spirited part, and the appetitive part - are in disharmony with each other, producing the disorder and vice of injustice. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you c...
2020-Aug-13 • 18 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 4 - Happiness Of Citizens And The City - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 4. Specifically it examines his discussion about the happiness of the citizens of his ideal city or political community. The goal is to produce happiness for all of the classes of the city, not just one class, and to do so by allowing them to express their natures through their distinctive activities. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make...
2020-Aug-11 • 14 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 4 - Distinguishing Parts Of The Soul - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 4. Specifically it examines his argument about why there are three main parts to the human soul - the reasoning/rational part (logos), the passionate or spirited part (thumos), and the appetitive part (epithumia). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee ...
2020-Aug-10 • 11 minutes
Epicurus, Principal Doctrines - Nature And Usefulness Of Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient hedonist philosopher Epicurus' Principal Doctrines (as well as the Letter to Menoecius and the Vatican Sayings) Specifically it examines his discussion of the nature and the usefulness of Justice for human beings. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 1500 phi...
2020-Aug-07 • 12 minutes
Epicurus, Principal Doctrines - Two Sources Of Groundless Fears - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient hedonist philosopher Epicurus' Principal Doctrines (as well as the Letter to Menoecius and the Vatican Sayings) Specifically it examines his discussion of two sources of what he determines to be "groundless" fears for human beings -- the wrath, envy, or favoritism on the part of the gods; and suffering Death To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.payp...
2020-Aug-01 • 10 minutes
Epicurus, Principal Doctrines - Pleasure, Prudence, And Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient hedonist philosopher Epicurus' Principal Doctrines (as well as the Letter to Menoecius and the Vatican Sayings) Specifically it examines his discussion about the relationship between living pleasantly, living justly, and living prudently. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM Y...