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Podcast Profile: Sadler's Lectures

podcast imageTwitter: @philosopher70
Site: soundcloud.com/gregorybsadler
500 episodes
2022 to present
Average episode: 14 minutes
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Categories: Course-Style • Ethics • History of Philosophy • Life Philosophy

Podcaster's summary: I'm that YouTube Philosophy Guy! Find more than 2,500 videos in my main channel. Support my video and podcast work! https://www.patreon.com/sadler or https://www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM | | Learn more about this podcast channel - https://youtu.be/qRvL0gqlyrw and https://medium.com/gregory-b-sadler-ph-d/the-sadlers-lectures-podcast-56e18619c5aa | | Due to popular demand - and with the work underwritten by my Patreon supporters - I have started converting my videos into MP3 files listeners can listen to anywhere they want! | | Once I reach a higher level of support on Patreon, I plan to start creating original episodes in a new podcast series. Want to help me get that started? Become a supporter!

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List Updated: 2024-Apr-14 06:08 UTC. Episodes: 500. Feedback: @TrueSciPhi.

Episodes
2024-Apr-12 • 17 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - The System Of The Categories - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Second Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How Is Pure Natural Science Possible? Specifically this bears upon his "Appendix to pure natural science. On the system of the categories." Kant contrasts his own systematic deduction of the table of the categories of the understanding against the unsystematic "rhapsody" of Aristotle'...
2024-Apr-10 • 16 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Experience And Pure Ideas Of Reason - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Third Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How is metaphysics in general possible? Specifically this bears upon his discussion about how the ideas of reason involve and aim at a completeness to experience that can never be found in experience itself. He discusses what use these ideas of reason are, and also clarifies the term "n...
2024-Apr-09 • 15 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Syllogisms And Pure Ideas Of Reason - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Third Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How is metaphysics in general possible? Specifically this bears upon Kant's discussion of the ideas or pure concept of reason, derived from his consideration of three main types of syllogisms (Verstandschlüsse): categorical, hypothetical, and disjunctive. These correspond to the psycholo...
2024-Apr-08 • 15 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - The Peculiarity Of Metaphysics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Third Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How is metaphysics in general possible? Specifically this bears upon what is distinctive, specific, or peculiar to metaphysics by contrast to pure mathematics and pure natural science. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a di...
2024-Apr-05 • 14 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Phenomena And Noumena - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Second Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How Is Pure Natural Science Possible? Specifically this bears upon the distinction between phenomena and noumena, that is things of sense or appearances, and beings of the understanding. Kant argues that we cannot have any determinate knowledge of the noumena, but we also can know that...
2024-Apr-03 • 14 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Removing Hume's Doubt About Causality - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Second Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How Is Pure Natural Science Possible? Specifically this bears upon Kant's situating himself in relation to his predecessor David Hume, who argues that we have no experience of causality as such, and that we can and should have doubts about the relationship between what we think to be c...
2024-Apr-02 • 17 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Principles Of Possible Experience - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Second Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How Is Pure Natural Science Possible? Specifically this bears upon what Kant calls "principles of possible experience". Principles (Grundsatze) are rules that are not determined by other rules, and these correspond to pure concepts of the understanding. Taken as a totality, they compr...
2024-Apr-01 • 14 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Pure Concepts Of The Understanding - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Second Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How Is Pure Natural Science Possible? Specifically this bears upon his exposition of what he identifies as pure concepts of the understanding (Verstandsbegriffe), which, as he tells us, make possible for us universal, objectively valid judgements. These correspond to the logical table ...
2024-Mar-30 • 14 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Judgements Of Perception And Experience - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Second Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How Is Pure Natural Science Possible? Specifically this bears upon the distinction Kant makes between two kinds of judgements, those of perception (Wahrnehmungsurteile) and those of experience (Erfarhungsurteille). The latter involve the addition of pure concepts of the understanding, ...
2024-Mar-29 • 16 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Nature And Pure Natural Science - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Second Part Of The Transcendental Problem: How Is Pure Natural Science Possible? Specifically this bears upon what 'nature" means, what the extent and scope of pure natural science is, and an explanation of how pure natural science is possible. Kant argues that pure natural science cannot be cognition of things as they are in ...
2024-Mar-27 • 14 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Avoiding Non-Critical Idealism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on Kant's defense of his own transcendental or critical idealism from accusations that he turns the spatio-temporal world of sense-experience into mere "illusion" (Schein). Kant explains how illusions do arise out of other philosophical positions and their key assumptions. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If y...
2024-Mar-25 • 16 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - How Illusions Arise - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on Kant's defense of his own transcendental or critical idealism from accusations that he turns the spatio-temporal world of sense-experience into mere "illusion" (Schein). Kant explains how illusions do arise out of other philosophical positions and their key assumptions. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If y...
2024-Mar-23 • 16 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Sensibility, Representations, And Geometry - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion of geometry in particular, in the course of which he briefly examines geometric proofs resting on congruence and objects that may be the same in some respects but are not congruent, such as spherical triangles, mirror images of hands, and helixes. Kant argues that geometry, based on the pure intuition of space as a form of sensible int...
2024-Mar-17 • 13 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Intuitions, Space, And Time - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussions of the a priori intuitions that are the basis for pure mathematics, namely space and time. These are the forms of empirical intuitions, preceding them logically, and they also provide geometry, arithmetic, and pure mechanics their bases. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make...
2024-Mar-15 • 16 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - A Priori Intuitions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion of the possibility of a priori intuition (Anschauung), which makes pure mathematics possible. Time and Space are such a priori intuitions, namely the forms of sensibility, the condition. for having empirical intuitions of objects. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direc...
2024-Mar-13 • 14 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Dogmatism, Skepticism, Metaphysics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Preamble on the peculiarities of all metaphysical knowledge, bearing upon how and why his transcendental or critical philosophy takes metaphysics beyond two other sets of positions, those of dogmatism and skepticism To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contri...
2024-Mar-11 • 11 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - How Are Synthetic A Priori Cognitions Possible? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Preamble on the peculiarities of all metaphysical knowledge, bearing upon what he takes to be a central problem that must be resolved if there is to be any genuine well-founded metaphysics, namely how it is that synthetic a priori cognitions (or judgements or propositions) are possible. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patr...
2024-Mar-10 • 18 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Analytic And Synthetic Judgements - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Preamble on the peculiarities of all metaphysical knowledge, bearing upon the distinction he makes between analytic and synthetic judgements. Analytic judgements do not add anything to our knowledge or understanding, though they can help us to clarify concepts. Synthetic judgements do add something new to our cognitions, because...
2024-Mar-08 • 11 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Metaphysical Judgements As Synthetic - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Preamble on the peculiarities of all metaphysical knowledge, bearing upon the nature of properly metaphysical judgements, cognitions, or propositions, namely that they are all synthetic a priori. This is what allows there to be any genuine advance in knowledge through metaphysics To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon si...
2024-Mar-07 • 14 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Mathematical Judgements As Synthetic - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Preamble on the peculiarities of all metaphysical knowledge, bearing upon the nature of mathematical judgements, properly speaking. Kant argues, against previous thinkers, that properly mathematical judgements are not analytic but synthetic a priori. There is still scope for analytic judgements within mathematics that help to ...
2024-Mar-05 • 14 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Differentiating Metaphysics As A Science - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Preamble on the peculiarities of all metaphysical knowledge, bearing upon how Metaphysics is to be differentiated as a science from other sciences. Kant tells us that there are three main differentiating factors, namely the object, the sources of cognition, and the kind of cognition. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreo...
2024-Mar-04 • 14 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - The Prolegomena And The First Critique - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Preface that outlines the relationship between the Prolegomena and his earlier published Critique of Pure Reason. The Prolegomena as a work addresses some of the obscurity that Kant admits is present in the Critique, and is structured in an analytic rather than synthetic style of presentation To support my ongoing work, go to m...
2024-Mar-03 • 17 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - David Hume's Spur To Kants Thinking - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in the Preface bearing upon how David Hume's critical examination of causality - the necessary connection between causes and effects - broke Kant's "dogmatic slumber" and spurred him to examine the possibility of metaphysics in a radical manner. This would lead to the work contained in the Critique of Pure Reason To support my ongoin...
2024-Mar-02 • 11 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena - Problems With Metaphysics As A Science - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work, The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Specifically it on his discussion in the Preface, in which he raises several problems with metaphysics of his time as a science. These include the lack of universal agreement or consensus, the advances of all the other sciences, and the lack of any settled criteria for the discipline. in Kant's view, it is time to ask the question whether metaphysics as a science is even possi...
2024-Feb-29 • 22 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? - Rachel Rosen, Nexus-6 Android
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the character Rachel Rosen, who is a rather unusual Nexus-6 Android owned directly by the Rosen Corporation. She interacts with Rick Deckard in a number of ways, with her motivations eventually becoming clear late in the novel. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you...
2024-Feb-28 • 22 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? - Mercerism As Swindle And Truth
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the expose by Buster Friendly of Mercer as a fraud and Mercerism as a "swindle", as well as how and why "nothing changes" as a result of this revelation. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/R...
2024-Feb-27 • 18 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? - The Mission Street Hall Of Justice
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the fake, "android-infested" Hall of Justice located not on Lombard Street but on Mission Street, where Deckard is taken after he attempts to use the Voight-Kampff empathy test on Luba Luft. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contributi...
2024-Feb-26 • 20 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? - Empathy And Antipathy Towards Androids
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the emotional attitudes and responses that various characters in the novel have or develop towards androids. Androids lack the capacity for empathy and therefore do not exhibit it towards each other. Rick Decker find himself feeling empathy towards at least some androids. To support my ongoing work, go to my P...
2024-Feb-25 • 20 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? - Mercerism And The Empathy Box
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the religion and life philosophy of Mercerisim, centered around the figure of Wilbur Mercer, the practice of using empathy boxes, and the experience of fusion with Mercer and other minds while one uses the empathy box. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to...
2024-Feb-23 • 23 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? - The Voight-Kampff Test - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the Voight-Kampff Empathy Test used by bounty-hunters to distinguish between androids and humans. We cover how the test works, whether or not it is or remains a valid instrument, representative questions from the test, and who the test is given to in the course of the novel. To support my ongoing work, go to ...
2024-Feb-21 • 17 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep - Kipple, Form-Destroying, And The Tomb-World
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the various ways in which entropy and breakdown get articulated, experienced, and feared in the book. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee....
2024-Feb-19 • 20 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? - John R. Isidore, Special - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the character John R Isidore, who has been recently classified as a "special". He is ineligible for emigration to the colonies, lives by himself in an apartment building in the suburbs, and holds a job as a driver for a false/electric animal hospital. A number of the chapters of the novel focus on Isidore, par...
2024-Feb-17 • 20 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? - Deckard's Six Android Bounties
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the plot of the novel, namely that bounty hunter Rick Deckard has to track down and kill six dangerous androids masquerading as human beings, and likely to try to kill him. These are: Polokov, Garland, Luft, Stratton, and the two Batys To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler...
2024-Feb-15 • 22 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep - Real And Electric Animals - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the importance animals have assumed for human beings in the post-war era, after the death of most animals. Empathy towards animals has become a major characteristic of human beings. Animals are also replicated in "electric" or mechanical forms To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.co...
2024-Feb-14 • 14 minutes
Philip Dick, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? - Dialing Up Moods - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep It focuses specifically on the Penfield mood organ which people can use to deliberately induce moods, emotional states, and even outlooks and attitudes in themselves and others To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reaso...
2024-Feb-12 • 6 minutes
Aristotle - People Who Excel As Laws Unto Themselves - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Aristotle's Politics, where he raises the idea of a person who so clearly excels everyone else around them in virtue that it seems strange to have them governed by others. He suggests that such a person is a law unto themself, and that if you're fortunate enough to have such a person, they ought to be given authority. You can get Aristotle's Politics here - https://amzn.to/2LBsQTj The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, lice...
2024-Feb-11 • 5 minutes
Aristotle - Exercising Authority For The Good Of The Governed - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Aristotle's Politics, where he discusses how and why authority should be exercised for the genuine good of those who are governed. This is what most fundamentally distinguishes good regimes from bad regimes, according to Aristotle. We can apply this not only to political relations, but any sorts of situations where power is exercised by one or more people over others. You can get Aristotle's Politics here - https://amzn.to/2LBsQTj The faint music in...
2024-Feb-09 • 6 minutes
Aristotle - Responsibility For Our Own Character - Sadler's Shorts
This is a short reflection on an insightful passage from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, where he discusses whether, and to what extent people are responsible for the character they develop and exhibit in their choices, habits, and actions You can get Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics here - http://amzn.to/2g9t0UU The faint music in the background is Mesmerize by Kevin MacLeod, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Source:... http://incompetec...
2024-Feb-07 • 12 minutes
John Cassian, Institutes Book 8 - Attributing Anger To God - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the late ancient monastic theologian, John Cassian's work Institutes of the Coenobia, book 8, "Of The Spirit of Anger". It focuses specifically on a common argument people make to excuse their own lapses into anger and bad temper, claiming that in Scripture God is said to get angry at people. Cassian's response is to point out that these passages are not to be taken literally, any more than are passages making other similar anthropomorphic claims about God. Instead, the divine anger i...
2024-Feb-06 • 13 minutes
John Cassian, Institutes Book 8 - Anger, Patience, And Solitude - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the late ancient monastic theologian, John Cassian's work Institutes of the Coenobia, book 8, "Of The Spirit of Anger". It focuses specifically on Cassian's contention that unless one deals with the anger one feels and the reasons one ends up getting angry which have to do with one's own mindset, character, and thought processes, it doesn't do one any good to leave other people behind and go out into solitude. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler...
2024-Feb-04 • 15 minutes
John Cassian, Institutes Book 8 - Rooting Out Anger Entirely - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the late ancient monastic theologian, John Cassian's work Institutes of the Coenobia, book 8, "Of The Spirit of Anger". It focuses specifically on one of the main pieces of advice that Cassian provides in that book, namely that the vice of anger ought to be entirely rooted out from the soul of a human being. His first discussion of this takes place in chapter 1 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, yo...
2024-Feb-02 • 12 minutes
John Cassian, Institutes Book 8 - Not Retaining Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the late ancient monastic theologian, John Cassian's work Institutes of the Coenobia, book 8, "Of The Spirit of Anger". It focuses specifically on his advice that we ought to not retain anger once we begin feel the emotion, a theme that Cassian returns to at multiple points in the chapter. Specifically, we should not take the precept "let not the sun go down on your anger" as an excuse to retain anger for a given time-period To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.pa...
2024-Jan-31 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Poetics - Fear, Pity, And Tragedy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Poetics, focusing on his discussions about the two emotions of pity (eleos) and fear (phobos), which Aristotle first mentions in his definition of tragedy. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 3000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aris...
2024-Jan-30 • 16 minutes
Aristotle, Poetics - Character, Choice, And Tragedy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Poetics, focusing on Aristotle's discussion of character (ēthos), which he identifies as the second most important element or part of tragedy. He tells us: "Character is that which reveals moral choice - that is, when otherwise unclear, what kinds of thing an agent chooses or rejects (which is why speeches in which there is nothing at all the speaker chooses or rejects contain no character); while thought covers the parts in which th...
2024-Jan-29 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Poetics - Different Modes Of Recognition - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Poetics, focusing on the different modes of what Aristotle calls "recognition" (anagnōrisis), one of the key features of good plots in tragedy. He writes: "The definition of recognition was stated earlier. As for its kinds, first is the least artistic and the one used the most from uninventiveness: recognition through tokens....The second kind are those contrived by the poet, and hence inartistic. ... The third kind is through memor...
2024-Jan-27 • 13 minutes
John Cassian, Institutes Book 8 - When Anger Is Appropriate - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the late ancient monastic theologian, John Cassian's work Institutes of the Coenobia, book 8, "Of The Spirit of Anger". It focuses specifically on the only situations in which Cassian considers anger to be legitimate and useful, that is, anger against the bad dispositions within oneself. He discusses this in chapters 7-9. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO...
2024-Jan-27 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Poetics - Reversal, Recognition, And Suffering - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Poetics, focusing on three key aspects of good plots: reversal (peripeteia), recognition (anagnōrisis), and suffering (pathos). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 3000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Poetics - https://a...
2024-Jan-26 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Poetics - Plot, Structure, And Unity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Poetics, focusing on his discussions of what he considers to be the most important part or aspect of tragedy, namely plot or story (mythos). Aristotle stresses that a good plot is complex, but forms a unity. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 3000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube ch...
2024-Jan-24 • 20 minutes
Aristotle, Poetics - Elements And Definitions Of Tragedy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Poetics, focusing on Aristotle's definition of tragedy, which runs: "Tragedy, then, is mimesis of an action which is elevated, complete, and of magnitude; in language embellished by distinct forms in its sections; employing the mode of enactment, not nar­rative; and through pity and fear accomplishing the catharsis a of such emotions. I use "embellished'' for lan­guage with rhythm and melody, and "distinct forms" for the fact that som...
2024-Jan-23 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Poetics - Three Distinctions In Mimesis - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Poetics, focusing on three key distinctions he brings up early on in the work, which bear upon different kinds of mimetic arts (including tragedy, comedy, epic, other poetry, and musical performances). The distinction is between the: Media of the mimetic work (en hois) Objects (or content) of the mimetic work (ha) Mode (or how) of the mimetic work (hōs) The six parts or elements of tragedy fall into this Diction and Lyric Poetry are...
2024-Jan-21 • 12 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 10 - Poetry And Corruption of The Soul
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 10. Specifically it examines his discussion of the dangers of poetry as a corrupter of the human soul To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 3000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtu...
2024-Jan-20 • 11 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 10 - Imitation. Poetry, And Parts Of The Soul
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 10. Specifically it examines his discussion of the rational and irrational parts of the human soul, and the effects and appeals of imitative art, specifically poetry, upon those parts. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdW...
2024-Jan-18 • 14 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 10 - Poets, Knowledge, and Education
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 10. Specifically it examines his discussion about whether the poets - or imitative artists in general (which would include film, music, tv, etc. in our own time) - actually possess or convey knowledge, and whether they ought to be involved in education or not. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here ...
2024-Jan-17 • 13 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 10 - Knowledge of Makers, Users, And Artists
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 10. Specifically it examines his discussion of.the knowledge possessed by three groups of people, when it comes to a product of art or craft - the users of the product, the makers of the product, and the imitative artists who depict the product. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me...
2024-Jan-15 • 9 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 10 - Ideas, Things, Imitations, And Their Makers
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 10. Specifically it examines his discussion about ideas or forms, material things, and artistic reproductions, and the three sorts of makers - God, craftsmen, and artists. As we move from the idea or form into the imitations of material objects and artistic productions, we leave behind simplicity for multiplicity, and true being for a facsimile. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - ...
2024-Jan-13 • 20 minutes
N.K. Jemisin, How Long Until Black Future Month - Those Who Stay And Fight - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the fantasy and science fiction author N.K. Jemisin's short story The Ones Who Stay And Fight, found in her work How Long Til Black Future Month? This story is a response to and homage about Ursula K Leguin's short story Those Who Walk Away From Omelas, and attempts to present a picture of and justification for a utopian civilization. One interesting feature of the story is that Jemisin addresses an outraged and angry interlocutor from our society who considers inequ...
2024-Jan-12 • 10 minutes
Silke Machold Et Al, Corporate Governance And Ethics - A Feminist Corporate Governance Model
This lecture discusses the article Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective, authored by Silke Machold, Pervaiz Ahmed, and Stuart Farquar, published in the Journal of Business Ethics, 81(3) in 2008. It focuses specifically on the implications of feminist ethics and the ethics of care for corporate governance models. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can f...
2024-Jan-11 • 11 minutes
Silke Machold Et Al, Corporate Governance And Ethics - Dimensions Of Care
This lecture discusses the article Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective, authored by Silke Machold, Pervaiz Ahmed, and Stuart Farquar, published in the Journal of Business Ethics, 81(3) in 2008. It focuses specifically on the four dimensions of care distinguished in the article: caring about, taking care of, care-giving, and care-receiving. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www....
2024-Jan-10 • 9 minutes
Silke Machold Et Al, Corporate Governance And Ethics - Justice, Care, And Rights
This lecture discusses the article Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective, authored by Silke Machold, Pervaiz Ahmed, and Stuart Farquar, published in the Journal of Business Ethics, 81(3) in 2008. It focuses specifically on how justice and care perspectives can be brought together in corporations, and why the concept of rights should play an important role in both perspectives To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct cont...
2024-Jan-08 • 16 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - How To Appear Virtuous Without Being So - Inadequate Shared Public Morality
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's essay "How To Seem Virtuous Without Actually Being So". It focuses upon MacIntyre's contention that not only do we not have any substantive and systematic shared public morality, what is available to us in our late modern culture is at best a shared rhetoric, and it remain inadequate for understanding and inculcating the virtues. He provides three examples where some adequate understanding o...
2024-Jan-07 • 20 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - How To Appear Virtuous Without Being So - Aristotelian & Humean Moral Education
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's essay "How To Seem Virtuous Without Actually Being So". It focuses upon how two substantive moral approaches, Aristotelian and Humean, differ from each other. He also admits to "begging the question" in taking an Aristotelian approach, but argues that there is no position one can take that is not question-begging in that manner. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreo...
2024-Jan-06 • 22 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - How To Appear Virtuous Without Being So - Pleasure, Mutual Sympathy, & Utility
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's essay "How To Seem Virtuous Without Actually Being So". It focuses upon one approach to moral theory, development, and the virtues that he calls "Humean". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over...
2024-Jan-05 • 14 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - How To Appear Virtuous Without Being So - Four Key Questions About Virtue
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's essay "How To Seem Virtuous Without Actually Being So". It focuses upon four key questions that any systematic and coherent account of the virtues will need to address To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You c...
2024-Jan-04 • 15 minutes
Alasdair MacIntyre - How To Appear Virtuous Without Being So - The Facade Of Moral Consensus
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th and 21st century philosopher and moral theorist, Alasdair MacIntyre's essay "How To Seem Virtuous Without Being So". It focuses upon what he calls a "facade of moral consensus" in late modernity about moral education and about the virtues. As he notes, the appeals to virtue, character and the like do not represent a shared public morality, let along a systematic and coherent account of the virtues, but rather just a common moral rhetoric, used in ordinary life...
2024-Jan-03 • 11 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - Ged, Lebannen, And Kalessin - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the final encounter in the book, when the oldest dragon in existence, comes to Ged and Lebannen, waking Ged and speaking with him. Kalessin has the two men mount his neck and carries them to Roke Island, then takes Ged to Gont. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contrib...
2024-Jan-02 • 11 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - Closing The Hole In Existence - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on how Ged, aided by his companion Lebannen/Arren, closes the hole that the evil mage Cob has opened in existence, between the Dry Land and Earthsea. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philo...
2024-Jan-01 • 15 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - Within The Dry Land Of Death - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on what Ged/Sparrowhawk and Arren/Lebannen experience once they cross the threshold into the land of the dead, the Dry Land, where the evil mage Cob has fled after killing and being killed by the dragon Orm Embar To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do...
2023-Dec-31 • 13 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - The Dragons Of The Run - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on Ged's and Arren's sailing through the islands of the Dragons' Run, and their engagements with the dragons deprived of speech and of reason To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy vi...
2023-Dec-30 • 14 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - The Dragon Orm Embar - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the great dragon Orm Embar, who seeks out the archmage Ged on the open sea, in order to ask his help in dealing with the new dragonlord who has taken voice and reason away from many of dragonkind. Orm Embar will sacrifice his own life in order to send the dragonlord and corrupted mage Cob back into the dry land, where Ged and Arren can dispa...
2023-Dec-28 • 13 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - The Children Of The Open Sea - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the people living on great rafts out on the ocean nearly all of the year, who Ged and Arren encounter and are saved by, the Children of the Open Sea To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 phi...
2023-Dec-27 • 12 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - Arren's Confusion, Anger, And Fear - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the feelings of confusion, anger, and fear that Arren feels in his mission with the archmage Ged, which lead him to question Ged's motives and powers, and to lapse into despair at one point To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal...
2023-Dec-22 • 15 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - The Mage Cob And The Pelnish Lore
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on a mage who Ged had previously encountered in his travels, Cob, who was using the Pelnish lore to bring the spirits of the dead to the domain of the living To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,5...
2023-Dec-20 • 15 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - Despair In Hort Town & Lorbanery - Sadler's Stories
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the despair that Ged and Arren encounter when they voyage to Hort Town and Lorbanery, a manifestation of magic and joy being sucked out of Earthsea. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 phi...
2023-Dec-19 • 20 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - Ged On Action, Choice, And Balance - Sadler's Stories
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the lessons that the archmage Ged/Sparrowhawk imparts to his young companion Arren, pertaining to actions and choices, good and evil, and the balance or "equilibrium" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can f...
2023-Dec-18 • 17 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - Roke's Masters And The Crisis - Sadler's Stories
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the conferences between the masters of magic on the island of Roke and the archmage Ged. Responding to the reports of weakening or failure of magic in the outer isles, the council is divided, and Ged determines that he will go out to find out more about the trouble, accompanied by Arren. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - ...
2023-Dec-17 • 14 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Farthest Shore - Arren's Commitment To The Archmage - Sadler's Stories
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Farthest Shore, the third of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the young nobleman, Arren's encounter with Ged/Sparrowhawk, the Archmage of Earthsea. Arren comes to the island of Roke bringing reports of a problem with magic failing in the islands, and he commits himself to Ged, an offer Ged will take him up on, as they sail out to find and confront the source of the problem. To support my ongoing work,...
2023-Dec-16 • 13 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - Tenar's Choice Of Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the choices Tenar must make near the end of the novel, each of which represents a choice for life and an uncertain future To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy videos in my main ...
2023-Dec-15 • 10 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - Ged And Tenar's Escape - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the escape Tenar and Ged make from the Tombs of Atuan and from the Island of Atuan itself To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.co...
2023-Dec-14 • 14 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - The Power Of Trust - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on what Ged calls "the power of trust" and how that enables Ged and Tenar to escape from the Tombs To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.yout...
2023-Dec-13 • 15 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - Tenar Regains Her Name - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on how Tenar regains her name, after existing as Arha, the "eaten one" for over a decade, and the implications of her taking on that identify. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosoph...
2023-Dec-12 • 19 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - Erreth-Akbes's Ring - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the stories about the broken ring or amulet or Erreth-Akbe, which motivates the entire story. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtub...
2023-Dec-11 • 13 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - Making Ged A Slave Of The Tombs - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on Arha's decision to make the mage Ged a "slave of the tombs" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Get Ursula K...
2023-Dec-09 • 14 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - The Undertomb And Labyrinth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on one of the main sets of locations in the story, the undertomb and the labyrinth, which are the domain of the Nameless Ones and their high priestess Arha To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,50...
2023-Dec-07 • 16 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - The Old Powers Of The Earth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the Old Powers of the Earth at Atuan, who are called the Nameless Ones or the Masters. These are the powers that Arha serves as a priestess To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy...
2023-Dec-06 • 14 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - Penthe, Unfaith, And Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the character Penthe, a girl about Arha's age who does not wish to be a priestess, and with whom Arha encounters "unfaith". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy videos in my ma...
2023-Dec-03 • 19 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - Arha The Priestess Ever Reborn - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the character Arha, who we meet as a girl identified as the reincarnation of the high priestess of the Nameless Ones at Atuan To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy videos in my m...
2023-Dec-02 • 19 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, The Tombs Of Atuan - The Kargish Lands And Culture - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, The Tombs of Atuan, the second of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the Kargish people of the four islands in the northeast, their culture, and the differences from them and the other inhabitants of Earthsea To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,500 philosophy...
2023-Nov-30 • 14 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Eternal Happiness And Misery - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of Anselm's argument that rational creatures will ultimately attain eternal happiness or suffer eternal misery, depending on whether they love the divine substance or contemn it. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - w...
2023-Nov-30 • 11 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Faith, Hope, And Charity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of how love, hope, and faith orient the rational creature to the divine substance - and what living and dead faith are. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2500 philo...
2023-Nov-28 • 9 minutes
Anselm Monologion - The Rational Creature's Love Of The Divine - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of Anselm's arguments why the rational creature ought to love the divine substance, and what the implications of this love would be. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find ov...
2023-Nov-27 • 9 minutes
Anselm Monologion - The Rational Human Mind As Mirror Of The Divine - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of Anselm's argument that the human mind can provide a mirror or image of the divine, in particular because it remembers itself, understands itself, and loves itself. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacof...
2023-Nov-25 • 13 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Grasping The Divine Through Images - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on Anselm's philosophical exposition of the Trinity, in particular his discussion of how we can know and say anything meaningful about the ineffable divine substance, namely through the use of images. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeAC...
2023-Nov-24 • 11 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Trinity Of The Divine Substance - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on Anselm's philosophical exposition of the Trinity, in particular his discussion of the third person of the divine substance, the Spirit, as the love between the Father and the Son. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buyme...
2023-Nov-22 • 11 minutes
Anselm Monologion - The Father And Son As Essence Of Each Other - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of how the Father (the divine substance) and the Son (the expression of the divine substance) are the essence of each other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2500 ...
2023-Nov-21 • 13 minutes
Anselm Monologion - Unity Of The Father And Son - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the medieval Christian thinker, monk, and bishop, Anselm of Canterbury's work, the Monologion. It focuses on the topic of the unity of the Father (the divine substance) and the Son (the expression of the divine substance) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in m...
2023-Nov-20 • 12 minutes
Rosemarie Tong, Gilligans Ethics Of Care - Complementarity Of Justice And Care
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American feminist philosopher Rosemarie Tong's article "Gilligan's Ethics Of Care" It focuses specifically on a common criticism made of the Ethics of Care, i.e. that it forces Justice and Care into opposed positions, when really there can be a complementarity to them. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee...
2023-Nov-18 • 8 minutes
Rosemarie Tong, Gilligans Ethics Of Care - Criteria For Caring Rightly
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American feminist philosopher Rosemarie Tong's article "Gilligan's Ethics Of Care" It focuses specifically on the criteria Tong outlines as requirements for Care to be rightly and fully acted upon, and something good for the person caring as well as the person cared for. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoff...
2023-Nov-16 • 10 minutes
Rosemarie Tong, Gilligans Ethics Of Care - Care As A Moral Requirement
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American feminist philosopher Rosemarie Tong's article "Gilligan's Ethics Of Care" It focuses specifically on one common criticism made of the Ethics of Care, namely that it turns Care into a moral requirement, one which it might be unfair to demand of some people. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - w...
2023-Nov-15 • 18 minutes
Rosemarie Tong, Gilligan's Ethics Of Care - Ethics Of Care As A Moral Theory
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American feminist philosopher Rosemarie Tong's article "Gilligan's Ethics Of Care" It focuses specifically on Gilligan's criticisms of Lawrence Kohlberg's six levels of moral development, as well as Gilligan's proposal for an alternative model with three levels, self-focus, other-focus, and balance of self and other To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so he...
2023-Nov-13 • 14 minutes
Robert Audi, The Ethical Significance Of Cost-Benefit Analysis - Pluralistic Ethics
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "The Ethical Significance of Cost Benefit Analysis". It focuses specifically on his last discussion in the piece, which focuses on whether cost-benefit analysis can be useful for what he calls "pluralistic" ethics, which is his own preferred moral approach. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal....
2023-Nov-11 • 14 minutes
Robert Audi, The Ethical Significance Of Cost-Benefit Analysis - Virtue Ethics
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "The Ethical Significance of Cost Benefit Analysis". It focuses specifically on whether virtue ethics, typically not associated with cost-benefit analysis, should incorporate that approach as a tool. Audi argues that virtue ethics can use cost benefit analysis in three ways. One of these is to determine how to deal with conflicts between what virtues require. Another is as a way to make prudential decisions...
2023-Nov-09 • 11 minutes
Robert Audi, Ethical Significance Of Cost-Benefit Analysis - Problems With Utilitarianism
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "The Ethical Significance of Cost Benefit Analysis". It focuses specifically on several problems with adopting a utilitarian point of view in ethics, using cost-benefit analysis. Several of these problems, Audi argues, would be an issue for other ethical theories or approaches. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do...
2023-Nov-08 • 14 minutes
Robert Audi, Ethical Significance Of Cost-Benefit Analysis - Utilitarianism And Cost-Benefit
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "The Ethical Significance of Cost Benefit Analysis". It focuses specifically on his discussion of utilitarianism as a ethical theory, which makes cost-benefit analysis central to moral theory, decision-making, prioritization, and evaluation. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or...
2023-Nov-06 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Senses Of The Term "To Have" - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 15 of different senses to "to have" or "having (in Greek, ekhein). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - amzn.to/3nS55ud
2023-Nov-04 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Six Types Of Motion - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 14 of the six types of motion or change (kinesis) that he distinguishes. He also discusses the opposites of these types of motion, as well - and points out that two of the types many have more than one opposite To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can f...
2023-Nov-03 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Different Senses Of "Simultaneous" - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 13 of the different senses of "simultaneous". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - amzn.to/3nS55ud
2023-Nov-01 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Four (Or Five) Senses Of The Term "Prior" - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 12 of the four (or, actually, five) senses of the term prior (and by implication, posterior) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categ...
2023-Oct-31 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - More About Characteristics of Contraries - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 11 which focuses on several additional characteristics of contraries (ta enantia). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - am...
2023-Oct-30 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Truth And Falsity Of Opposite Statements - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 10 of truth and falsity of opposed statements. In some cases, one statement must be true and the other false, but in some cases both can be false. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www...
2023-Oct-29 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Changes From Opposites Into Each Other - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 10 focused on how and whether opposites change into each other. He focuses primarily on the second form of opposition - contraries - and the third form - positives and privatives. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos...
2023-Oct-28 • 14 minutes
Robert Audi, Ethical Significance Of Cost-Benefit Analysis - Kantian Ethics
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "The Ethical Significance of Cost Benefit Analysis". It focuses specifically on his contention that an ethical theory that would seemingly have nothing to do with using cost-benefit analysis, namely Kant's deontological ethics, could and should make use of that approach to some extent. Audi argues that Kantian ethics is not as divorced from consequences as it is often presented as being, and that cost-benefi...
2023-Oct-27 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Affirmation And Denial - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 10 focused on one main type of opposition, namely that between affirmation (kataphasis) and denial (apophasis). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchas...
2023-Oct-26 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Privatives And Positives - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 10 focused on one main type of opposition, that between privatives (steresis) and positives (hexis). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle...
2023-Oct-24 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Contraries And Intermediates - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 10 of contraries (ta enantia) that have intermediates and those that do not. We also discuss how and why there would be intermediaries for some contraries and not for others. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in m...
2023-Oct-23 • 7 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Four Types Of Opposition - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his distinction in chapter 10 between four types of opposition - correlatives, contraries, privations and positives, affirmations and denials or negations. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/...
2023-Oct-22 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Qualities, Relations, And Knowledge - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 8 of whether knowledge - both in general and as specific types of knowledge - are best understood as falling in the category of quality or that of relation. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube chan...
2023-Oct-20 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Qualities And Contraries - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 8 focused on qualities and contraries. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - amzn.to/3nS55ud
2023-Oct-19 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Opinions, Statements, And Contraries - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 5 about whether statements (logoi) or opinions (doxai) admit of or have contraries, or not. His view is that while statements or opinions can be true or false - and these do seem to be contraries to each other - it is really the things themselves referred to in the statements or opinions that admit of contraries. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sad...
2023-Oct-18 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Figures And Forms Of Things - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 8 of one particular class of qualities, namely forms and figures or things. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - https://a...
2023-Oct-16 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Qualities, Habits, And Dispositions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 8 of one particular class of qualities, namely habits and dispositions. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - amzn.to/3nS55...
2023-Oct-14 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Natural Capacities as Qualities - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 8 of one particular class of qualities, namely "natural capacities" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - https://amzn.to/3...
2023-Oct-13 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - The Category Of Quality - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 8 of the category of quality (to poion), one of the most important of the categories of predication To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle'...
2023-Oct-12 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Relation, Knowledge, And Perception - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 7 of how perception and knowledge function as relatives to their objects. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - https://amz...
2023-Oct-11 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Relations, Contraries, And Degrees - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 7 of whether relations admit of contraries and degrees. His view is that some relational terms can be contraries or admit of degrees, but that others do not, so that neither contrariness nor degrees are essential to relations To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reaso...
2023-Oct-10 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Passive Qualities And Passions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 8 of one particular class of qualities, namely passive qualities and passions. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - https:...
2023-Oct-10 • 16 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Relation And Correlatives - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 7 of the relationship between the category of relation (pros ti) and correlative terms. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categori...
2023-Oct-08 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - The Category Of Relation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 7 of the category of relation (pros ti). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Categories - https://amzn.to/3nS55ud
2023-Oct-07 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Space, Time, and Number - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 6 of the relationship between space, time, and quantity. Both space and time are what Aristotle calls continuous quantity. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbis...
2023-Oct-06 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Quantity In Primary And Secondary Senses - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his distinction in chapter 6 of the relationship between quantity understood in primary and secondary senses of the term. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Aristotle's Ca...
2023-Oct-04 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - The Category Of Quantity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 6 of the category of quantity (to poson). Quantity, in Aristotle's view, encompasses number, speech, geometric matters, time, and space. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube....
2023-Oct-03 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Contraries And Substances - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his discussion in chapter 5 of the relationship between substances and contraries. Substances - whether primary or secondary - do not have contraries themselves, and do not admit of degrees. Substances do, however, admit of or accept contraries - and this is something distinctive to substances as opposed to other things. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd lik...
2023-Oct-02 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Species And Genus - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his distinction in chapter 5 between two sorts of secondary substances - species (eidos) and genus (genos). Species are types of things, i.e. of primary substances or individually existing things. Genuses have a similar relation to species, as species do to individual things. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so...
2023-Sep-29 • 16 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Primary And Secondary Substances - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his distinction in chapter 5 of the distinction between primary and secondary substances. Primary substances are existing individual things, which function as the underlying subjects that other things either are in or are predicated of. Secondary substances include species and genera, and are not substances in a full sense of the term. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadle...
2023-Sep-27 • 17 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - The Ten Categories - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his listing in chapter 4 of the ten categories or predicables. These are main ways that uncombined terms signify something. These are: substance (ousia), Quantity (poson), Quality (poion), Relation (pros ti), Place (pou), Time (pote), Position (keisthai), State (ekhein),Action (poiein) and Passion (pashkein). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make ...
2023-Sep-26 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - In A Subject Vs Predicated Of A Subject - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his distinction in chapter 2 between something being "in" a subject, and something being predicated of a subject. There are four main possibilities, and each of those is discussed here, using Aristotle's own examples. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2500 philo...
2023-Sep-24 • 18 minutes
Aristotle, Categories - Univocal, Equivocal, And Derivative Terms - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle' work, the Categories, focusing on his distinction in chapter 1 between three types of terms - Univocal (sunonuma), Equivocal (homonuma), and Derivative (paronuma). This distinction concerns the connection between linguistic expressions and meanings. Univocal terms have the same meaning, or in Aristotle's terms, "statement of essence" (logos tes ousias). Equivocal terms have the same name or expression, but different statements of essence. De...
2023-Sep-23 • 19 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 2 - The Ring Of Gyges - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 2. Specifically it examines one of the most striking metaphors of the book: The Ring of Gyges, which turns its possessor invisible, and is liable to lead the wielder into injustice. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM ...
2023-Sep-22 • 13 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 2 - Representations Of Justice As Instrumentally Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 2. Specifically it examines the ways in which justice is typically represented by family, media, and other sources of moral education -- namely as an instrumental, rather than intrinsic good To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/...
2023-Sep-20 • 11 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 2 - The Origin And Nature Of Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 2. Specifically it examines the theory about the nature and origin of justice presented there by Glaucon -- a view that justice arises primarily because human beings realize that their chances of getting away with committing injustice are lower than their chances -- or the harm done -- of avoiding suffering injustice. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If yo...
2023-Sep-18 • 14 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 2 - What Kind Of Good Is Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 2. Specifically it examines the question about what sort of good justice is -- instrumental or intrinsic. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2500 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.y...
2023-Sep-16 • 14 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - The Fifth Way To Prove Gods Existence
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, q. 2. It focuses upon his discussion in article 2, bearing on whether God's existence can be proven or demonstrated by rational means at all. Thomas offers us five ways to argue for God's existence. The fifth way, a design argument, focuses on order and governance within the world, and argues to God as the governor or orderer of all things. To su...
2023-Sep-15 • 12 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - The Fourth Way To Prove Gods Existence
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, q. 2. It focuses upon his discussion in article 2, bearing on whether God's existence can be proven or demonstrated by rational means at all. Thomas offers us five ways to argue for God's existence. The fourth focuses on degrees of being, and argues that God is supreme goodness, being, and every other perfection. To support my ongoing work, go...
2023-Sep-13 • 11 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - The Third Way To Prove Gods Existence
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, q. 2. It focuses upon his discussion in article 2, bearing on whether God's existence can be proven or demonstrated by rational means at all. Thomas offers us five ways to argue for God's existence. The third way focuses on possibility and necessity, and argues that God is Necessary Being. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www...
2023-Sep-11 • 13 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - The Second Way To Prove Gods Existence
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, q. 2. It focuses upon his discussion in article 2, bearing on whether God's existence can be proven or demonstrated by rational means at all. Thomas offers us five ways to argue for God's existence. The second way focuses on efficient causality, and argues that God is the First Cause. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patr...
2023-Sep-09 • 11 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - The First Way To Prove Gods Existence
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Dominican friar, Thomas Aquinas, and focuses on his Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, q. 2. It focuses upon his discussion in article 2, bearing on whether God's existence can be proven or demonstrated by rational means at all. Thomas offers us five ways to argue for God's existence. The first way focuses on motion or change, and argues that God is the Prime Mover. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon....
2023-Sep-08 • 10 minutes
John Hospers, What Libertarianism Is - Government, Individuals, And Business - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century philosopher and political activist John Hospers' essay "What Libertarianism Is" It focuses specifically on his views on the limited role government should play, mainly focused on protecting rights, and the impacts and implications this would have for businesses and individuals To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at Buy...
2023-Sep-06 • 11 minutes
John Hospers, What Libertarianism Is - Rights To Life, Liberty, and Property - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century philosopher and political activist John Hospers' essay "What Libertarianism Is" It focuses specifically on his discussion of the three rights he takes as fundamental, i.e. the right to maintain one's life, the right to maintain one's liberty or freedom, and the right to one's own property. These supersede and structure all other moral considerations for the libertarian. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If y...
2023-Sep-04 • 9 minutes
Norman Bowie, A Kantian Approach To Business Ethics - Organizations As Moral Communities
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century philosopher Norman Bowie's article "A Kantian Approach To Business Ethics" It focuses specifically on his discussion of the third formulation of Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative, which deals with the kingdom of ends. He applies this to business organizations and companies and draws out some of the implications of applying Kant's ideas for the workplace and decision-making. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadl...
2023-Sep-03 • 10 minutes
Norman Bowie, A Kantian Approach To Business Ethics - Respect For Persons And Layoffs
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century philosopher Norman Bowie's article "A Kantian Approach To Business Ethics" It focuses specifically on his discussion of the second categorical imperative articulated by Immanuel Kant, which Bowie reformulates in terms of "respect for persons", and applies to the example of laying people off. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reaso...
2023-Sep-01 • 9 minutes
Norman Bowie, A Kantian Approach To Business Ethics - Respect For Persons And Meaningful Work
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century philosopher Norman Bowie's article "A Kantian Approach To Business Ethics" It focuses specifically on his discussions of how Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative would apply in Business Ethics situations and contexts. In this case, the second formulation, which has to do with respect for persons, has implications for "meaningful work". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribu...
2023-Aug-31 • 9 minutes
Norman Bowie, A Kantian Approach To Business Ethics - Universalization Of Actions
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century philosopher Norman Bowie's article "A Kantian Approach To Business Ethics" It focuses specifically on his discussion of the first formulation of Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative and how it can be applied within business ethics settings. This formulation focuses on whether actions or policies can be universalized or not, and what significance this bears for their ethical status. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/...
2023-Aug-30 • 17 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - Fleeing And Facing The Shadow - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on Ged's struggles with the "Shadow", the entity that came into Earthsea through a terrible mistake with magic on Ged's part. At first, he attempts to escape and flee the shadow, but then following Ogion's advice he turns on it and hunts it. Finally he and the shadow are integrated through his giving the shadow his own name. To support my o...
2023-Aug-29 • 18 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - Vetch's Friendship With Ged - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the character Vetch's friendship with Ged, which begins on the first day Ged arrives at Roke and continues on throughout their life. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,000 philosophy vide...
2023-Aug-27 • 18 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - Magic, Mages, And Roke Island - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on Ged's education in the high arts of magic at Roke Island. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase A Wi...
2023-Aug-24 • 19 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - The Dragons Of Pendor - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on Ged/Sparrowhawk's encounter with the younger dragons and the great dragon off the shores of the Isle of Pendor To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube c...
2023-Aug-23 • 18 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - Understanding The Equilibrium - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the conception of the "equilibrium" that the masters and mages of Roke invoke and discuss in and out of their classes. The young mage Ged has to learn about the equilibrium by painful experience as well. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so h...
2023-Aug-21 • 17 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - Danger And Temptations Of Power - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the dangers and temptations of magical power that are depicted in the novel. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisa...
2023-Aug-16 • 18 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - Ged's Pride And Humbling - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the sources of - and the struggles with - Ged/Sparrowhawk's pride, and the humbling of it as he realizes the consequences of his actions To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2,000 philosophy v...
2023-Aug-15 • 15 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - Bringing Shadows Into The World - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on specifically how Ged/Sparrowhawk uses a spell he does not fully understand to summon a spirit of the dead, but ends up opening a rift through which a dangerous and evil shadow comes into Earthsea. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - w...
2023-Aug-14 • 18 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - Magical Power In Earthsea - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the different types and users of magic within Earthsea, as we learn about them in the first book. This not only includes human beings like witches, warlocks, wizards, enchantresses, and mages, but also dragons and the old powers of the earth To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make...
2023-Aug-12 • 20 minutes
Ursula K Leguin, A Wizard Of Earthsea - The Names Of Things - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the science fiction and fantasy author, Ursula K. Leguin's novel, A Wizard of Earthsea, the first of six Earthsea books It focuses specifically on the concept of a "true name", which allows the knowing or understanding of the thing named, as well as its control or manipulation by magic. Persons, animals, things, even bodies of water each have their name in Earthsea To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution...
2023-Aug-10 • 12 minutes
Milton Friedman, The Social Responsibility Of Business - Politics, Taxation, & Social Responsbility
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century economist and statistician Milton Friedman's essay, originally published in the New York Times, "The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits" It focuses specifically on discussion of how social responsibility in business matters amounts, in his view, to a tax, which he thinks ought to be treated as a political matter. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contrib...
2023-Aug-09 • 10 minutes
Milton Friedman, The Social Responsibility Of Business - The Cloak Of Social Responsibility
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century economist and statistician Milton Friedman's essay, originally published in the New York Times, "The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits" It focuses specifically on his discussion of what he calls the "cloak of social responsibility," which he views as providing a pretext for engaging in irresponsible and unethical decision-making in business, To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd...
2023-Aug-08 • 11 minutes
Milton Friedman, The Social Responsibility Of Business - Businesses Agents And Responsibilities
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century economist and statistician Milton Friedman's essay, originally published in the New York Times, "The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits" It focuses specifically on his discussion of what responsibilities business managers and executives have, and towards whom. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - o...
2023-Aug-07 • 9 minutes
Robert Audi, Virtue Ethics As A Resource In Business - Four Dimensions Of Ethical Challenge
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "Virtue Ethics as a Resource in Business" It focuses specifically on four main areas of ethical challenge: ethical decisions, rules of action, traits of character, and virtues & obligations. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM ...
2023-Aug-03 • 11 minutes
Robert Audi, Virtue Ethics As A Resource In Business - Virtuous Persons, Motivation, And Action
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "Virtue Ethics as a Resource in Business" It focuses specifically on one important aspect of virtue ethics in business, the motivations people have for their choices and actions. This requires we distinguish acting from virtue from acting in accordance with virtue To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www....
2023-Jul-31 • 11 minutes
Robert Audi, Virtue Ethics As A Resource In Business - Six Dimensions Of Virtue
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "Virtue Ethics as a Resource in Business" It focuses specifically on the six dimensions he identifies as involved in a virtue. These are: Field; Target; Beneficiaries; Agential Understanding; Motivation; and Grounding. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - ww...
2023-Jul-29 • 9 minutes
Robert Audi, Virtue Ethics As A Resource In Business - Five Contexts Of Application
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "Virtue Ethics as a Resource in Business" It focuses specifically on five of what Audi calls contexts of application for virtue ethics: aspiration, prohibition, exhortation, discovery, and justification To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.co...
2023-Jul-28 • 11 minutes
Robert Audi, Virtue Ethics As A Resource In Business - Virtue Ethics As A Theory
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American philosopher Robert Audi's article, "Virtue Ethics as a Resource in Business" It focuses specifically on his general overview about virtue ethics as a moral theory, looking at whether it can provide standards, what sort of standards it provides, and how it does so. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACo...
2023-Jul-26 • 12 minutes
Philip Dick, The Android And Human - Concerns About Drugs - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's speech "The Android and the Human", given at the Vancouver SF Convention at the University of British Columbia, in March 1972. It focuses specifically on Dick's views on the use of drugs, both street drugs and prescribed drugs, the latter of which he views as more problematic, and used to reduce people to analogues of androids To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site ...
2023-Jul-25 • 19 minutes
Philip Dick, The Android And Human - State Order And Youthful Disobedience - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's speech "The Android and the Human", given at the Vancouver SF Convention at the University of British Columbia, in March 1972. It focuses specifically on how some of the characteristics and motivations of the present generation of children and young adults in his time can function to resist being reduced to analogues to androids ("androidization"). To support my ongoing work, ...
2023-Jul-24 • 17 minutes
Philip Dick, The Android And Human - Human Beings And Androids - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's speech "The Android and the Human", given at the Vancouver SF Convention at the University of British Columbia, in March 1972. It focuses specifically on the ways in which he thinks genuinely human beings (those who have not been reduced to androids) can be distinguished from androids. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to...
2023-Jul-23 • 17 minutes
Philip Dick, The Android And Human - Reversibility, Animation, Technology - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century American science-fiction short story writer and novelist, Philip K. Dick's speech "The Android and the Human", given at the Vancouver SF Convention at the University of British Columbia, in March 1972. It focuses specifically on Dick's view that the distinction between the mechanical or electrical and the animate is beginning to break down in late modernity. He also suggests that in addition to looking to machines, computers, and androids to understa...
2023-Jul-21 • 17 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - Eucatastrophe, Evangelium, And Joy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on his discussion, at the very end of the work, of what he terms "eucatastrophe" (as opposed to duscatastrophe) as a function of fairy stories, the "happy ending" that occurs through pain, suffering, loss, but not a final defeat. There is a joy both for sub-creators and for readers or listeners of the stories, and it is connected to the good ne...
2023-Jul-19 • 12 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - Escapes And Desires - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on his discussion of the motivations we can have for engaging in escape from the present by reading fairy stories. Some of these motivations might be framed negatively, but others are better understood in terms of basic and even primordial desires of human beings. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If ...
2023-Jul-17 • 15 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - Escape's Legitimacy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on his discussion of the common criticism that gets made of fantasy, science fiction, and fairy stories, namely that they are escapes from the reality of the ordinary life that we have a duty to remain with. Tolkien thinks this misguided, and offers some reasons why escape might be a reasonable and valuable thing to engage in. To support my on...
2023-Jul-16 • 15 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - Recovery, Loss, And Fairy Stories - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on his discussion near the end of the work of recovery of what has been lost (sometimes without us even realizing it) through fairy stories. He also addresses the problem many people impose upon themselves, worrying too much about originality, rather than seeing that creativity is possible even with few and often-used elements. To support my o...
2023-Jul-14 • 15 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - Sub-Creators And Secondary Worlds - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on his discussion bearing upon four connected terms and ideas: sub-creation, sub-creators, secondary worlds, and secondary beliefs. Successful fantasy and fairy stories involves the author as a sub-creator, producing and offering to us a secondary world in which we can believe and within the scope of which things can be true. To support my on...
2023-Jul-12 • 17 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - Fantasy And The Arts - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on Tolkien's conception of fantasy, which he takes to be at the core of fairy tales, and why it is that one art in particular - literature, using the medium of language - is best suited for fantasy and fairy stories, by contrast to painting or to drama To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to...
2023-Jul-11 • 16 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - The Cauldron Of Story - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on his culinary metaphor of stories as being something that comes out of a pot or cauldron, as a stock, soup, or stew, and prepared by cooks. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffe...
2023-Jul-10 • 13 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - Three Faces Of Fairy Stories - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on the passage where he distinguishes three "faces" of fairy stories, "the Mystical towards the Supernatural; the Magical towards Nature; and the Mirror of scorn and pity towards Man." Tolkien claims that the magical is the essential face, but the other two are often involved as well. We also go into his later distinction between magic and enc...
2023-Jul-09 • 19 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - Are Fairy Stories For Children? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on his discussion of whether or not Fairy Stories are essentially for children or not. Tolkien engages in some useful criticism of people who think they are, including Andrew Lang, well known for his fairy books. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do ...
2023-Jul-06 • 17 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - Origins Of Fairy Stories - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on his discussion of theories about the origins of fairy stories, tackling what he considers to be the least important of the three questions he is focused upon. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACof...
2023-Jul-05 • 14 minutes
J.R.R. Tolkien, On Fairy Stories - What Is A Fairy Story? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th Century English author, linguist, and literary critic J.R.R. Tolkien's essay On Fairy Stories It focuses specifically on his views on what actually makes a narrative a fairy story, considering some common but misconceived answers to this question, in order to determine a right answer to it, namely that they are stories that are about or involve, "touches on or uses" the realm of Faërie. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadle...
2023-Jul-04 • 18 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Remedies Against Anger From The Muses - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 11, in which Marcus sets out nine remedies for anger allegorically received from the Muses, and then adds three more, one of them a gift from Apollo. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyM...
2023-Jul-03 • 13 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Philosophy And One's Own Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 8 which has to do with incorporating philosophy in practical ways into the scope and purposes of one's own life. This allows us to avoid falling into vainglory (kenodoxia). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/...
2023-Jul-02 • 12 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Analysing Things One Encounters - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 3, in which he suggests that we engage in analysis of things that we encounter in our experiences. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can fi...
2023-Jul-01 • 13 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Finding Pleasure And Beauty In Things - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 3, in which he advocates finding beauty and pleasure in even things that appear dangerous, damaged, imperfect, or incomplete within the universe To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffe...
2023-Jun-30 • 16 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Injustice, Sinning, And Universal Nature - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 9, in which he equates engaging in unjust actions of various sorts with engaging in impiety, sinning, or blaspheming. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4...
2023-Jun-28 • 10 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Reasoning Instead Of Getting Angry - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 5, in which he suggests to himself, and to us his readers, that we can engage in some productive reasoning rather than getting angry, particularly when we are dealing with people who are making mistakes or being offensive. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direc...
2023-Jun-26 • 14 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - The Soul Injuring Itself - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 2, where Marcus details a number of ways in which the soul "injures" or "degrades" (hubrizei heautēn) itself, suggesting that he and we ought to avoid those. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or a...
2023-Jun-24 • 15 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Stoic Providence Or Epicurean Atoms - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a set of passages in books 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11 that deal with a common recurring theme, namely that either the universe is structured and organized providentially (the Stoic perspective), or events in the universe are causally connected but random (the Epicurean perspective). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.co...
2023-Jun-23 • 14 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Retreating Into Oneself - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 4 about our capacity to withdraw into the inner space of ourselves, which gets taken along with a passage in book 8 about the inner citadel, to suggest that everyone has a calm, non-busied place within their soul. This is the case for those who have prepared such a space within them by practicing philosophy. To support my ongoi...
2023-Jun-21 • 12 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Pity In Place Of Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on three passages in book 7 which have a common theme, namely avoiding feeling anger at people who screw up (hamartein) by reminding ourselves of how and why people screw up in the ways that they do. This enables us to feel other things towards them, including pity or compassion, in place of anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site ...
2023-Jun-20 • 14 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - The Right Response To Wrongdoers - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 9, in which he discusses how we ought to respond on our own parts to encountering people who do wrong. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You c...
2023-Jun-18 • 12 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Choosing The Highest Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 3, in which Marcus suggests we should pursue what the highest good for human beings is. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 200...
2023-Jun-16 • 13 minutes
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations - Preparing For The Day - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' work, Meditations (or To Myself) It focuses specifically on a passage in book 2, where Marcus gives himself a number of reminders as he begins his day. These reminders are intended to help him maintain his own good character despite having to deal with people who are indeed bad in specific ways. For those who do understand the nature of goods and evils, there is a greater responsibility to work with thei...
2023-Jun-14 • 12 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 3 - Daily Self-Examination - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 3 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 3 about a long-term daily practice of self-examination Seneca suggests we ought to engage in in order to eliminate or lessen anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can...
2023-Jun-13 • 13 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 3 - Physical Stresses, Remedies, And Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 3 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 3 about the mind-body connection and how stresses to the body can make us more susceptible to anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy vide...
2023-Jun-12 • 15 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 3 - Anger As The Worst Of Vices - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 3 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 3 about his claims and arguments that anger is the worst of all of the vices. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube ...
2023-Jun-09 • 14 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 3 - Avoiding Occasions For Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 3 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 3 about how we can avoid getting angry by avoiding activities and occasions that are likely to cause us to feel anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 200...
2023-Jun-08 • 12 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 3 - Envy, Anger, And Perspective - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 3 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 3 about how envy and the tendency to comparison central to it not only interfere with our capacity to enjoy happiness but also lead us into feeling anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee....
2023-Jun-07 • 13 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 3 - Ignoring And Reframing Information - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 3 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 3 about a set of cognitive reframing and reinterpreting practices that we can use in order to avoid getting angry or to reduce anger that we do experience To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee....
2023-Jun-05 • 13 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 3 - Choosing Companions To Avoid Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 3 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 3 about the choices we can make about who we surround ourselves with, who we engage with, and what effects those people will have on our characters and specifically how we deal with anger To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at...
2023-Jun-04 • 17 minutes
Seneca, On The Shortness Of Life - Philosophy And Getting More Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On The Shortness of Life It focuses specifically on his advocacy of studying philosophy as a way of gaining ourselves more time and life, participating in the thought and even life of other people, specifically philosophers To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffe...
2023-Jun-03 • 17 minutes
Seneca, On The Shortness Of Life - Pleasures, Leisure, And Work - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On The Shortness of Life It focuses specifically on his discussions throughout that work of people who misuse the leisure and free time they possess by pursuing pleasures that require a lot of time and work to procure, enjoy, or safeguard. Seneca tells us that: "They are not unoccupied whose pleasures are made a busy occupation." To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to m...
2023-Jun-02 • 14 minutes
Seneca, On The Shortness Of Life - The Three Times: Past, Present, And Future - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On The Shortness of Life It focuses specifically on his discussion of the three times: past (quod fuit), present (quod est), and future (quod futurum est). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main...
2023-Jun-01 • 17 minutes
Seneca, On The Shortness Of Life - Preoccupation And Wasting Time - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On The Shortness of Life It focuses specifically on the state many people waste their lives in, which he terms being "preoccupied" (occupatus). The preoccupied rob themselves of the opportunity of enjoying and appreciating their present moment, even when they appear to be focused on the present. They also render themselves unable to use their own past as a resource. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.pa...
2023-May-30 • 13 minutes
Seneca, On The Shortness Of Life - Time The Most Precious Commodity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On The Shortness of Life It focuses specifically on his discussion of our time and our life as the most precious commodity we possess, and how most people not only don't realize this, but also waste much of their time until it is too late. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee -...
2023-May-29 • 15 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 2 - Three Movements Of Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 2 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 2 about his discussion of the three stages or movements involved in the emotion of anger. In the first stage, we grasp an appearance and are affected by it in some manner that can lead to anger. The second stage involves judgement, reason, will, and assent, and we have some control at this point. The third stage is the full emotion of anger, and is at that po...
2023-May-28 • 14 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 2 - Virtue, Wisdom, And Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 2 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 2 about his answers to objections some people raise against the Stoic negative evaluation of anger, namely that the virtuous or wise person ought to get angry with wrongdoers. Seneca provides several lines of reasoning for why the opposite should be the case To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a d...
2023-May-26 • 14 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 2 - Anger And Nobility - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 2 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 2 about one set of objections that Seneca considers and responds to in book 2, namely that being prone to anger involves a sort of nobility (generositas) or straightforwardness (simplicitas) on the part of the cultures, animals, or people who feel and act upon anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to...
2023-May-26 • 14 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 2 - Anger, Temperament, And The Body - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 2 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 2 about his views about the ancient four-elements/humor-based physical theory and its implications for anger To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosop...
2023-May-24 • 15 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 2 - Anger, Brutality, And Cruelty - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 2 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 2 about the difference between anger and irascibility on the one side, and brutality (ferritas) and cruelty (crudelitas). He also examines how anger can over time develop into cruelty. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at Bu...
2023-May-23 • 15 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 2 - Anger At Inanimate Things - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 2 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 2 about the irrationality of getting angry with inanimate objects, since this involves attributing an intentionality and agency to them which they do not possess. Seneca also considers whether it is rational for us to transfer that anger to the makers, designers, or craftspeople of those inanimate objects, both human and divine. To support my ongoing work, ...
2023-May-22 • 15 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 2 - Anger And Self-Awareness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 2 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 2 about his discussion of one very useful principle and practice people can use to be less angry, namely realizing that nobody is without fault. If we develop some self-awareness of our own faults, flaws, and failures, we are more able to not only take criticism from others, but to be understanding, patient, and forgiving with other people who exhibit the sam...
2023-May-19 • 12 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 2 - Errors As Cause For Anger
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 2 It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 2 about why the errors or mistakes other people commit do not have to become a cause for our own emotional response of anger To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find ov...
2023-May-18 • 14 minutes
Cynic Epistles Attributed to Crates - Cynicism, Begging, And Accepting From Others
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient letter collection called the Cynic Epistles. This one looks at those letters (most likely falsely) attributed to Crates, the third scholarch of the Cynic school. Specifically it focuses on the Cynic practice of begging or asking for resources from other people. In the letters, a number of distinctions get made about who one should beg and receive from and why, and conversely who one shouldn't ask or take from. Begging was one distinctive feature of lived C...
2023-May-16 • 17 minutes
Cynic Epistles Attributed to Crates - Prudently Taking On Toil - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient letter collection called the Cynic Epistles. This one looks at those letters (most likely falsely) attributed to Crates, the third scholarch of the Cynic school. Specifically it focuses on the notion of "toil" (ponos, ponein) in Cynic philosophy and practice. The Cynics argue that toil, that is actively engaging in work and enduring what one encounters, is what leads a person to development of the virtues, which include wisdom, justice, temperance, and cou...
2023-May-15 • 14 minutes
Cynic Epistles Attributed to Crates - Cynicism, Virtue, And Happiness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient letter collection called the Cynic Epistles. This one looks at those letters (most likely falsely) attributed to Crates, the third scholarch of the Cynic school. Specifically it focuses on the nature of human happiness (eudaimonia), which for the Cynics involves freedom and virtue. Crates discusses or references a number of the virtues, including wisdom, justice, temperance, and courage, as well as vices opposed to these. He also briefly examines how these ...
2023-May-13 • 16 minutes
Cynic Epistles Attributed to Crates - Cynicism As Philosophy's Short Path - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient letter collection called the Cynic Epistles. This one looks at those letters (most likely falsely) attributed to Crates, the third scholarch of the Cynic school. Specifically it focuses on the Cynic conception of philosophy, and the trope that Cynic philosophy is the short road to happiness. Crates, the third scholarch of the Cynic school, was a member of a developing tradition that was viewed as started by Antisthenes and refined or perfected by Diogenes ...
2023-May-12 • 13 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Precepts About Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on his discussion of objections that might be raised against his position that God does and should be angry with some people. These objections would focus on the fact that God provides precepts for human beings that say they shouldn't get angry, shouldn't express or act upon anger, or should resolve their anger quickly. To support my ongoing work, go to my P...
2023-May-11 • 13 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Humans, Reason, And Religion - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on the question of what genuinely differentiates human beings from the brute animals. Lactantius considers speech, laughter, and even reason and prudential planning, and notes that at least some animals share in these in some ways. The difference for Lactantius resides in religion, and the associated virtues of wisdom and justice. To support my ongoing work,...
2023-May-09 • 14 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Addressing Arguments From Evil
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on his discussions bearing on what has come to be called the "problem of evil". He considers the positions of several schools of antiquity, in particular the Stoics, Skeptics, and Epicureans, and he provides a proposed solution to the problem of evil as framed by Epicurus To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd li...
2023-May-08 • 17 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Mercy, Pardon, And Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on his discussion about God being moved by anger to punish, or by mercy to pardon. Lactantius maintains that God is angry against those who break to despise his eternal law, and that punishing is actually protecting the good from the bad, but that there are also good reasons for God to exhibit patience towards human beings and to forgive. To support my ongoi...
2023-May-06 • 15 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Human Virtues And Vices - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on his discussion of virtues and vices, particularly as they apply to anger. He frames virtues and vices in relation to the body and the soul as well. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com...
2023-May-05 • 14 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Defining Just Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on his discussion of various definitions of anger, which he finds deficient, put forward by Stoics, Cicero, and Aristotle. These all work for unjust anger, but do not apply to just anger, which he defines as "a motion of mind arising for restraining faults". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a d...
2023-May-04 • 13 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Emotions In God - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on his discussions of what emotions (affectus) God would feel. He distinguishes between emotions it doesn't make sense to attribute to God, because they are associated with vice, and emotions that God should feel precisely because they are expressive of virtue. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make ...
2023-May-01 • 13 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Criticisms Of Stoics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on the criticism of the Stoics' position on God(s) and anger. He makes several main criticisms of them: first, for thinking that God exhibits kindness but not anger; second, for claiming that everything in the universe has some usefulness for human beings; and third, for failing to distinguish between just and unjust anger, leading to mistaken definitions of ...
2023-Apr-29 • 15 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Criticisms Of Epicureans - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on the criticism of Epicurus' position on God(s) and anger. He has three main lines of criticism: one dealing with whether God has emotions ; another bearing upon God as active or inactive; and another applying to the Epicurean version of the argument from evil To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make ...
2023-Apr-28 • 17 minutes
Lactantius, On The Anger Of God - Why Philosophers Err - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Christian rhetorician and philosopher's short treatise, On The Anger of God Specifically it focuses on the first several chapters in which he discusses why philosophers, relying upon human reason unaided by divine revelation, go astray by relying upon plausible conjectures about matters. He also distinguishes three steps or levels (gradus) the philosopher would need to ascend and not slip back down from in order to more fully grasp truth To support my ong...
2023-Apr-27 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - Differences Between Anger And Hatred - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 about the distinctions he notes between two emotions that often get confused with each other, anger (orgē) and hatred (mison, ekhthra). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - ...
2023-Apr-26 • 18 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - People One Is Calm Or Mild With
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 about what kinds of people other people tend to exhibit calmness or mildness (the opposite of anger) towards and why they feel that towards them. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/R...
2023-Apr-25 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - Calmness And Circumstances - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 about circumstances or conditions in which people are likely to get less angry or not to get angry at all, that is to be calm or mild. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reas...
2023-Apr-24 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - Calmness or Mildness And Discharging Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 about a dynamic he identifies, where a person who is angry with one person may become less so, or entirely calm, when they discharge or expend their anger against another person To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ...
2023-Apr-22 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - Definition Of Calmness Or Mildness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 defining the emotion of calmness or mildness (praōtēs), which is a quieting or appeasing of anger, and can be understood by its opposition to anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www....
2023-Apr-18 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - People One Gets Angry Before - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 about the people in whose presence one becomes angrier when one is or gets angry. These include people one considers rivals, those one respects, those one desires to be respected by, those they admire, and those they wish to be admired by To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www...
2023-Apr-15 • 17 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - People One Gets Angrier With - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 about the people Aristotle identifies as those other people typically not only get angry with, but even get angrier with. In some of these cases, he discusses why the response of anger is more intense. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to ...
2023-Apr-14 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - Anger Over Matters One Values - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 about one dynamic Aristotle points out, namely that people get angry not only at slighting they perceive as directed at them or those people they care about, but also things and even abstractions that they value. Even more interesting, they become angrier, according to Aristotle, when they feel...
2023-Apr-11 • 16 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - Three Modes Of Slighting - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 about the three main modes of slighting (oligoria), the perception of which on the part of the angered person produces anger. These three modes are contempt (kataphronesis), spitefulness (epereasmos) and insult (hubris). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadl...
2023-Apr-10 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Rhetoric Book 2 - Definition Of Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Rhetoric, and examines his discussion in book 2 about his complex definition of anger, which includes a number of elements including apparent slighting (oligoria) pain and pleasure desire (orexis) for retaliation (timoresis) slighting being against oneself or those connected to oneself the slighting being wrong, unjust, or inappropriate To s...
2023-Apr-07 • 13 minutes
Pascal Pensees - Criticism Of The Stoics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher, theologian, and mathematician, Blaise Pascal, and focuses on his work, the Pensees. Specifically it discusses the criticism he makes of the Stoics, naming Epictetus but also having in mind the neo-Stoics of his time. His criticism is that they are partly right, but miss where they've got things wrong and others have them right, which leads to a kind of onesidedness To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd lik...
2023-Apr-06 • 15 minutes
Pascal Pensees - The Reasons Of The Heart - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher, theologian, and mathematician, Blaise Pascal, and focuses on his work, the Pensees. Specifically it discusses the "heart" and its relationship and distinction from reason in a human being. This is spurred specifically by the famous passage contained in section 277, that runs: "Le coeur a ses raisons que la raison ne connaît point". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, ...
2023-Apr-04 • 17 minutes
Pascal Pensees - The Three Orders: Flesh, The Mind, and Love - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher, theologian, and mathematician, Blaise Pascal, and focuses on his work, the Pensees. Specifically it discusses his conception of the three orders, namely those of bodies or flesh, the mind and knowledge, and the will or love. There are people primarily focused on and oriented to the matters of each of these orders. The orders are incommensurable with each other, differing not only in object but also in value This is discussed primarily in sections 460 ...
2023-Apr-03 • 14 minutes
Pascal Pensees - The Greatness And Misery Of Human Being - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher, theologian, and mathematician, Blaise Pascal, and focuses on his work, the Pensees. Specifically it discusses two key aspects of human being, what he calls the greatness (grandeur) and the misery (misere). Pascal thinks that many people go astray by attending only to one of these aspects, without paying attention to the other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ca...
2023-Apr-01 • 21 minutes
Pascal Pensees - The Power Of Imagination Over Reason - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher, theologian, and mathematician, Blaise Pascal, and focuses on his work, the Pensees. Specifically it discusses the power imagination exercises over the faculty of reason in human beings. Pascal thinks that imagination plays a much greater role in human affairs and matters, and that it isn't reasonable to give reason priority all of the time. This is discussed primarily in section 82 in the Brunschvicg edition. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreo...
2023-Mar-31 • 15 minutes
Pascal Pensees - Differing Conceptions Of Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher, theologian, and mathematician, Blaise Pascal, and focuses on his work, the Pensees. Specifically it discusses how human beings wind up with differing conceptions of what is just and unjust. Pascal notes that what is considered right or wrong, true or false, varies considerably from country to country. When we look for a universal natural law or the essence of justice, we don't find these in any particular society, and we tend to erode the power of custo...
2023-Mar-29 • 14 minutes
Pascal Pensees - The Infinite Sphere, Its Circumference, And Its Center - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher, theologian, and mathematician, Blaise Pascal, and focuses on his work, the Pensees. Specifically it discusses the passage in which he writes: "C’est une sphère infinie dont le centre est partout, la circonférence nulle part" (71, in the Léon Brunschvicg edition). As it turns out, this expression has a history, and Pascal also adds to the concepts involved in a few other passages. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadl...
2023-Mar-26 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - The Goodness or Badness of Pleasure - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 7 about the moral values - good or bad - of varieties of pleasures. Not all pleasures are the same in this respect. Aristotle distinguishes between pleasures (and pains) that have different values, examines the relationship between goodness absolutely and goodness for a particular person, and also discusses the "restorative" pleasures. ...
2023-Mar-23 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - Desirability of Bodily Pleasures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion about why bodily pleasures are particularly desirable for the majority of human beings. He makes an argument that will later be reappropriated by John Stuart Mill in Utilitarianism, namely that bodily pleasures are those which most people are familiar with. He also distinguishes between more noble and more base pleasures, and discusses some "n...
2023-Mar-22 • 16 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethic Bk 7 - Virtue & Vice, Brutality & Heroic Virtue, Akrasia & Self-Control
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on passages early on in book 7, where he distinguishes and (at least for some of them) discusses six distinct moral states or conditions: superhuman virtue, virtue, self-control, lack of self-control, vice, and brutality. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - ww...
2023-Mar-20 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - Self-Restraint (Enkrateia)- Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on his discussion in book 7 about a good moral state, self-control or self-restraint (enkrateia). A person who is self-controlled knows what the right or good thing to do is, and does that, but has to struggle against their desire to do something else. This is the state opposed to akrasia, or lack/loss of self-control. Self-control is not the same state as moral...
2023-Mar-19 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - Obstinacy, Stubbornness, and Self-Restraint - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 7, and examines the difference between self-restraint or control - which is a good moral state - and obstinacy or stubbornness. People who are obstinate are difficult to convince or persuade, and it is not because they actually know or understand the good and rationally stick with it against resistance or temptation. ...
2023-Mar-17 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - Softness, Endurance, and Pain - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 7, and examines his discussion in book 7 about two states analogous to self-control (enkrateia) and lack/loss of self-control (akrasia) but dealing with aversion to pain, rather than desire for pleasure - endurance (karteia) and softness (malakia). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sa...
2023-Mar-16 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - Brutality and Morbid Dispositions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 7, and examines his discussion in book 7 about the moral state called "theriotes" in Greek, typically translated as "brutality" or "bestiality" in English. This is a condition in which the higher, rational, part of the person is not just corrupted (as is the case in vice), but is either not present or not working in any sign...
2023-Mar-15 • 8 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - The Practical Syllogism and Human Action - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 7, and examines his discussion in book 7 about the practical syllogism - a topic that remains murky and rather underdeveloped in Aristotle's work as a whole (and an object of controversy within the secondary literature). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make ...
2023-Mar-13 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - Is Akrasia Due To Anger Better? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 7, and examines his discussion in book 7 about whether a qualified forms of akrasia (lack or loss of self-control) stemming from anger (thumos) is better than akrasia proper, which has to do with lack or loss of self-control when faced with desire for physical pleasures. Aristotle does in fact think akrasia due to ang...
2023-Mar-12 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - Qualified Forms Of Akrasia - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 7, and examines his discussion in book 7 about qualified forms of akrasia (lack or loss of self-control). Akrasia proper has to do with lack or loss of self-control when faced with desire for physical pleasures. Qualified forms of akrasia have to do with other goods, desires for which can cause a person to do what th...
2023-Mar-10 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - Knowledge, Opinion, and Akrasia - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 7, and examines the connection between knowledge or opinion about the good and akrasia (lack or loss of self control). Is it possible for a person to do what they know or think to be something bad or wrong? A lack or loss of self-control would seem to imply that one does on some level understand the moral value of th...
2023-Mar-09 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 7 - Akrasia: Lack Or Loss Of Self Control - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 7, and examines his discussion of lack of self control, called in Greek "akrasia". He discusses how this lack of self-control can take place, and whether it involves knowing something to be bad or wrong and nevertheless choosing it. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd ...
2023-Mar-08 • 12 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Three Types Of Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval Christin philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas's work, the Summa Theologiae, First Part of the Second Part, question 46 "On Anger". It focuses specifically on determining how many types of anger there are. Thomas follows what he takes Aristotle to be claiming, and that John Damscene does claim, namely that there are three main types of anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct co...
2023-Mar-07 • 16 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Anger, Hatred, And Seriousness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval Christin philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas's work, the Summa Theologiae, First Part of the Second Part, question 46 "On Anger". It focuses specifically on the question whether anger or hatred is a more serious matter. In discussing this, Thomas makes some important distinctions between the two emotions To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www...
2023-Mar-07 • 16 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Anger's And Justice's Objects - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval Christin philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas's work, the Summa Theologiae, First Part of the Second Part, question 46 "On Anger". It focuses specifically on what the objects of anger and justice are, and whether they are the same or different. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com...
2023-Mar-05 • 18 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Anger And Reason - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval Christin philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas's work, the Summa Theologiae, First Part of the Second Part, question 46 "On Anger" (and a bit of question 48 as well) It focuses specifically on the relationship between the emotion of anger and the human capacity for reason and rationality. Does anger involve reason, and does anger interfere with reason are two of the questions Thomas examine To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patre...
2023-Mar-03 • 17 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Goodness, Badness, And Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval Christian philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas's work, the Summa Theologiae, First Part of the Second Part, question 46 "On Anger". It focuses specifically on whether the object of anger is goodness (bonum), badness (malum), or both. Anger is also compared to other emotions in terms of its object. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal....
2023-Mar-02 • 13 minutes
Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae - Anger As Specific Or General Emotion - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval Christin philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas's work, the Summa Theologiae, First Part of the Second Part, question 46 "On Anger". It focuses specifically on whether anger is a general (passion generalis) or specific emotion (passion specialis). Anger is, as Thomas points out, a particularly complex emotion, involving other emotional responses. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direc...
2023-Mar-01 • 12 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Theodorus Interpretation Of Cyrenaic Ethics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient doxographer Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers book 6, The Life of Aristippus It focuses specifically on the philosopher Theodoras' reinterpretation of the key ideas, doctrines, and concerns of Cyrenaic ethics. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 20...
2023-Feb-27 • 15 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Hegesias Interpretation Of Cyrenaic Ethics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient doxographer Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers book 6, The Life of Aristippus It focuses specifically on the philosopher Hegesias' reinterpretation of the key ideas, doctrines, and concerns of Cyrenaic ethics. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 200...
2023-Feb-24 • 15 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Cyrenaic Sages, Virtue, And Happiness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient doxographer Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers book 2, The Life of Aristippus It focuses specifically on how Aristippus and the Cyrenaics viewed the figure of the "sage" or wise person, how they understood happiness, and where virtue and the virtues figure into the good life. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at B...
2023-Feb-23 • 15 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Aristippus On Pleasures And Pains - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient doxographer Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers book 6, The Life of Aristippus It focuses specifically on Aristippus' teaching about the centrality of pleasures and pains in moral decision-making and the good life. It also discusses how the Cyrenaics classified and valued different pleasures and pains. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.p...
2023-Feb-22 • 17 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Aristippus, Wealth, Power, And Philosophy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient doxographer Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers book 6, The Life of Aristippus It focuses specifically on the lifestyle, mindset, and priorities of Aristippus, displayed in his choices and actions. Philosophy made it possible for him to feel at ease in any situations, and to adopt the right attitudes towards wealth, power, and those who possess them To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a ...
2023-Feb-20 • 14 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 1 - Anger And Punishment - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 1 It focuses specifically on his views on the relationship between anger and punishment. Seneca rejects the claim that anger is required in order to punish rightly. He also sets out a conception of punishment as primarily about healing the offender and protecting others. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here...
2023-Feb-18 • 11 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 1 - Anger And Defending Others - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 1 It focuses specifically on his criticisms of the often-made claim that anger is needed in order to defend other people close to one, including parents, children, spouses, friends, and neighbors To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdW...
2023-Feb-16 • 13 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 1 - Anger And Reason - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 1 It focuses specifically on the issue of how the emotion of anger and reason or rationality are related to each other. Seneca, as a Stoic, thinks that when the human mind is affected by anger, that keeps it from being rational, and he notes a number of differences between what anger does and what reason does. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a ...
2023-Feb-15 • 14 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 1 - Is Anger A Useful Ally? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 1 It focuses specifically on his criticisms of the argument made in ancient times (and in our own) that anger can be a useful ally for virtue or reason, providing us with needed energy or resolve. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYd...
2023-Feb-14 • 12 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 1 - Is Anger In Accordance With Nature? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 1 It focuses specifically on the question whether anger is or is not "in accordance with nature" (secundum naturum), which Seneca here interprets in a common Stoic way, as in accordance with a fully developed human nature. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - w...
2023-Feb-12 • 15 minutes
Seneca, On Anger Book 1 - Definitions Of Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient Stoic philosopher Seneca's work, On Anger, book 1 It focuses specifically on the definitions of anger he considers at the beginning of the work. These include: Anger is a brief madness (some "wise people") Anger is the desire to take vengeance for a wrong Anger is the desire to punish the person by whom you reckon you were unjustly harmed (Posidonius) Anger is the arousal of the mind to harm the person who has either harmed oneself or wished to do so Anger...
2023-Feb-11 • 15 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Hume's Fork - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on the passages that are sometimes called "Hume's Fork", which run: "If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? No. Commit it then to the flames: for it...
2023-Feb-09 • 17 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Pyrrhonian And Mitigated Skepticism
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on the distinction he makes between a Pyrrhonian or excessive skepticism and a mitigated or Academical skepticism, in both matters of theory and practice To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/...
2023-Feb-08 • 18 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Skepticism And The Senses - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his discussion of skepticism, specifically in terms of the reliability of the senses and the truth of what we perceive through them. He considers in particular whether the distinction between primary and secondary qualities really holds or not. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribu...
2023-Feb-08 • 15 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - God, Providence, And Justice
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his discussion bearing on whether we have good rational grounds for claiming that there is distributive justice within the world or not, or failing that, provided for in an afterlife. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at Buy...
2023-Feb-03 • 20 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Causes, Effects, And Divine Providence
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his discussion, framed in terms of arguments placed in the mouths of friend of his and of Epicurus, of claims about divine providence made by religious people. One of Hume's main lines of criticism is that when it comes the universe and the divine, we can reason from effects to causes, but not from causes to effects, given how little we know or can analogize ...
2023-Feb-02 • 20 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Reasons Against Testimonies Of Miracles
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on the arguments that he provides against accepting testimonies that would amount to a proof or a probability of a miracle To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 20...
2023-Jan-31 • 16 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Miracles, Testimony, And Nature
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his views on whether miracles, as opposed to simply marvelous events, are possible, and whether testimonies about miracles make them probable or proven or not. Hume defines a miracle as a violation of the laws of nature. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so her...
2023-Jan-29 • 17 minutes
David Hume, Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Animals, Instinct, And Experience
This lecture discusses key ideas from the modern empiricist philosopher David Hume' Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding It focuses specifically on his views on whether non-human animals engage in reasoning or not. He argues that most human beings are not engaged in explicit reasoning most of the time, including philosophers, and that non-human animals are guided by experience and custom like human beings, but rely more upon instinct than do human beings To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site...
2023-Jan-27 • 13 minutes
Plutarch, On Controlling Anger - Anger And Righteous Indignation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and biographer Plutarch's short work On Controlling Anger. This episode focuses specifically on his cautions about allowing the excuse that we are just experiencing and acting on "righteous indignation" (misoponeria), when we are really feeling and following anger. You can find the copy of the text I am using for this sequence on Plutarch's On Controlling Anger here - https://amzn.to/3gpyrS3 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - ...
2023-Jan-26 • 12 minutes
Plutarch, On Controlling Anger - Cheerfulness As A Remedy For Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and biographer Plutarch's short work On Controlling Anger. This episode focuses specifically on his discussions about the disposition of cheerfulness (eukolia) and its positive effects as a remedy for anger in oneself and in others. You can find the copy of the text I am using for this sequence on Plutarch's On Controlling Anger here - https://amzn.to/3gpyrS3 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd...
2023-Jan-24 • 13 minutes
Plutarch, On Controlling Anger - Breaking Anger's Tyranny - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and biographer Plutarch's short work On Controlling Anger. This episode focuses specifically on his discussions bearing on anger as something like a tyrant or a tyranny within the angry person. He also discusses our own tendency to become tyrannical in our anger with those who are subject to and vulnerable to us. You can find the copy of the text I am using for this sequence on Plutarch's On Controlling Anger here - https://amzn.to/3gpyrS3 To...
2023-Jan-23 • 12 minutes
Plutarch, On Controlling Anger - Anger, Mildness, And Simplicity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and biographer Plutarch's short work On Controlling Anger. This episode focuses specifically on how anger arises for many people out of being too attached, fussy, or particular about matters, and how deliberately cultivating simplicity can help promote the opposite of anger, the virtue of mildness or good temper (praotēs) You can find the copy of the text I am using for this sequence on Plutarch's On Controlling Anger here - https://amzn.to/3g...
2023-Jan-22 • 13 minutes
Plutarch, On Controlling Anger - Anger, Contempt, And Neglect - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and biographer Plutarch's short work On Controlling Anger. This episode focuses specifically on his discussion of the causes of anger, which he views as multiple and different for different people. Still, contempt and neglect are main causes of anger according to Plutarch. You can find the copy of the text I am using for this sequence on Plutarch's On Controlling Anger here - https://amzn.to/3gpyrS3 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreo...
2023-Jan-21 • 14 minutes
Plutarch, On Controlling Anger - Anger And Distortion Of Appearance - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and biographer Plutarch's short work On Controlling Anger. This episode focuses specifically on the effects that the emotion of anger has in changing and distorting our appearance, notable in the face, voice, gait, and skin color, among other signs.Plutarch advises that we observe these distorting effects and form an image of what we ourselves would look like while angry, as a technique of anger management You can find the copy of the text I am...
2023-Jan-21 • 12 minutes
Plutarch, On Controlling Anger - Examples Of Anger And Mildness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and biographer Plutarch's short work On Controlling Anger. This episode focuses specifically on his discussions of political leaders who provide examples of how to manage anger well, in particular Philip of Macedon. He also briefly discusses philosophers, orators, and advocates. You can find the copy of the text I am using for this sequence on Plutarch's On Controlling Anger here - https://amzn.to/3gpyrS3 To support my ongoing work, go to my ...
2023-Jan-17 • 15 minutes
Plutarch, On Controlling Anger - Training Oneself Away From Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and biographer Plutarch's short work On Controlling Anger. This episode focuses specifically on how we can change our habits concerning anger through training ourselves, and preparing and employing our faculty of reason when we find ourselves getting or feeling angry. You can find the copy of the text I am using for this sequence on Plutarch's On Controlling Anger here - https://amzn.to/3gpyrS3 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon sit...
2023-Jan-16 • 12 minutes
John Chrysostom Homily 16 On Matthew - Reconciliation With Others - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early Christian theologian John Chrysostom's Homily 16, On The Gospel of Matthew This episode focuses specifically on the command given by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount that if you bring your gift to the altar and realize your brother or sister has anything against you, you should go be reconciled first, and then come back to offer your gift. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution,...
2023-Jan-15 • 15 minutes
John Chrysostom Homily 16 On Matthew - Three Precepts About Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early Christian theologian John Chrysostom's Homily 16, On The Gospel of Matthew This episode focuses specifically on his interpretation of the three precepts Jesus gives about anger and its verbal expression in the Sermon on the Mount. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can fin...
2023-Jan-14 • 17 minutes
John Chrysostom Homily 16 On Matthew - Defending Gods Law - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early Christian theologian John Chrysostom's Homily 16 on the Gospel of Matthew This episode focuses specifically on his discussion of the old law of the Hebrew scriptures and the new law of the precepts given by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount. Chrysostom argues against potential Jewish interlocutors that the new precepts effectively expand the old law, and against Manichaean (and other Gnostic) opponents that the old law is good. To support my ongoing work, g...
2023-Jan-13 • 15 minutes
John Chrysostom Homily 14 On Ephesians - Anger, Corrupt Speech, And God - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early Christian theologian John Chrysostom's Homily 14, On Paul's Letter to the Ephesians. This episode focuses specifically on his discussion about how different modes of "corrupt speech" produce, stem from, or intensify anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2...
2023-Jan-12 • 13 minutes
John Chrysostom Homily 14 On Ephesians - Anger, Sin, Time, And The Devil - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early Christian theologian John Chrysostom's Homily 14, On Paul's Letter to the Ephesians. This episode focuses specifically on how giving anger too much time in our lives and relationships creates a place for the devil to come in between us human beings and promote conflicts. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - w...
2023-Jan-11 • 17 minutes
Lucretius, On The Nature Of Things - Death As Nothing To Us - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and poet Lucretius' poem On The Nature of Things (De rerum natura), book 4, which presents an Epicurean viewpoint on a number of matters. This episode focuses specifically on the arguments Lucretius makes for why, as Epicurus said, “death is nothing to us”, and why we should not fear death. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/...
2023-Jan-09 • 17 minutes
Lucretius, On The Nature Of Things - Mortality Of Mind And Spirit - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and poet Lucretius' poem On The Nature of Things (De rerum natura), book 4, which presents an Epicurean viewpoint on a number of matters. This episode focuses specifically on his discussion about the mortality of the mind and the vital spirit, which are both composed of matter, specifically of atoms, and which perish with the body To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribu...
2023-Jan-07 • 14 minutes
Lucretius, On The Nature Of Things - Errors About Mind, Spirit, And Body - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and poet Lucretius' poem On The Nature of Things (De rerum natura), book 4, which presents an Epicurean viewpoint on a number of matters. This episode focuses specifically on his discussion of several errors which he thinks other philosophers have fallen into when it comes to the mind, spirit, and body, all of which are composed of matter according to Lucretius. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'...
2023-Jan-05 • 15 minutes
Lucretius, On The Nature Of Things - Elements Of Mind And Spirit - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and poet Lucretius' poem On The Nature of Things (De rerum natura), book 4, which presents an Epicurean viewpoint on a number of matters. This episode focuses specifically on the discussion of what mind (animus) and spirit (anima) are composed of, according to Lucretius. This turns out to be four "elements", namely wind (aura, ventus), heat (vapor, color), air (aër), and a nameless fourth element responsible for sentience. To support my ongoing...
2023-Jan-03 • 12 minutes
Lucretius, On The Nature Of Things - What Mind And Spirit Are - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and poet Lucretius' poem On The Nature of Things (De rerum natura), book 4, which presents an Epicurean viewpoint on a number of matters. This episode focuses specifically on what Lucretius thinks that mind (animus) and vital spirit (anima) are. He thinks that they are composed of matter, and interconnected with the body To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you...
2023-Jan-02 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 3 - Wish Or Rational Desire (Boulēsis) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 3, and examines his treatment of boulēsis - translated as "wish", "will", or "rational desire". Wish or rational desire is one of the three main types of desire or affectivity (orexis) that Aristotle distinguishes (the other two being "appetite", epithumia, and "spirited desire" or "anger", thumos). Wish orients us ...
2023-Jan-01 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 3 - Prohairesis Or Moral Choice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on his discussion in book 3 of a key ethical matter, moral or deliberative choice (prohairesis), discussed in book 3. Choice is intimately connected with character, virtues and vices, and what kind of a person one turns out to be. For Aristotle, it also involves deliberation about means for ends, and provides an important junction connecting a person's af...
2022-Dec-30 • 22 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 3 - Ignorance And The Voluntary - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on his discussion in book 3, where Aristotle discusses the condition of ignorance, and the degree to which ignorance can make an action involuntary. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/...
2022-Dec-29 • 18 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 3 - Compulsion And The Involuntary - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on his discussion in books 3 and 7 of the voluntary and involuntary, what counts as compulsion, how compulsion removes or mitigates moral responsibility, and how the state Aristotle calls "brutality" can function similarly to compulsion. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution,...
2022-Dec-28 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 3 - Deliberation, Means, And Ends - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on his discussion of deliberation (boulē, bouleusis) about means for ends, discussed in book 3. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy videos i...
2022-Dec-27 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 3 - Responsibility For Character - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 3, and examines his assessment of human beings' responsibility for the development of their own moral character. While acknowledging the importance of factors such as culture, family, upbringing, education, and habituation, Aristotle holds human beings largely responsible for the good or bad character - the virtuous o...
2022-Dec-26 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 3 - The Voluntary And The Involuntary - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 3, and examines his distinction between the voluntary and involuntary, including actions that are mixed, partly voluntary and partly involuntary To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at B...
2022-Dec-23 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - The Priority Of Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines he question of whether justice has a priority over the other virtues. Or, more precisely, whether the duties associated with justice have a priority over the duties associated with the other virtues. Cicero does give justice and its duties this prior...
2022-Dec-22 • 11 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - The Four Characters Or Roles - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines the "four characters" - a classic Stoic conception of what we are responsible for and what we are not responsible for. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do ...
2022-Dec-21 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Temperance In Homes and Furnishings - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines the virtue of Temperance. One interesting aspect of this virtue he discusses has to do with our living quarters. Cicero focuses specifically upon houses, but there is no reason we cannot extend his advice, considerations, and guidelines to rentals or...
2022-Dec-19 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Temperance In Speech and Conversation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines he virtue of Temperance. One main dimension of temperance or moderation is speech and conversation, and Cicero provides a number of guidelines for how temperance is displayed in our communication with others. Some of these have to do with how one spe...
2022-Dec-18 • 11 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Temperance In Behavior and Actions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines the virtue of Temperance. One main dimension of temperance or moderation is action and behavior, and Cicero provides three general guidelines for what temperance requires. He also provides more specific discussion of aspects of temperance in actions ...
2022-Dec-17 • 14 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Faction, Electioneering, And Social Breakdown - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines his short discussion about how faction or partisan divisions arise within a society. Generally, this takes place because those involved in government give priority to their own individual good or the good of a part of the community, over the common go...
2022-Dec-16 • 14 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Courage, Public Life, And Private Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines where in the course of discussing the virtue of courage (which includes greatness of soul) - he raises the question whether private life or public life provides a better field for exercising the virtue of courage. Although he does think that public li...
2022-Dec-15 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Courage, Fear And Other Emotions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines Cicero's claims that courage is not only concerned with the emotion of fear, but also the emotions of desire, pleasure, pain, and anger. This is the Stoic position on the emotions, and differs from other virtue ethics perspectives on courage, particu...
2022-Dec-13 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Guidelines For Benevolence - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines a set of guidelines that ought to govern our dispositions, choices, and actions of benevolence or beneficence. These include criteria such as whether the person deserves our generosity, the need to remain within our own means and that we do not do har...
2022-Dec-12 • 13 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Beneficence And Degrees Of Relationships - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines the different ways in which human beings are related to each other - from belonging to the same human race or species, to being members or fellow citizens of the same political community, to being members of the same local community, to being family or...
2022-Dec-11 • 11 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Beneficence And Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines two main divisions or parts of the virtue of justice. There is justice in the strict sense, and then there is beneficence (beneficientia) - or quite literally "doing good to others". This includes generosity (liberalitas) and kindness (benignitas). ...
2022-Dec-10 • 14 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Justice Towards Enemies In War - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines the duties of justice that we owe towards enemies when we are at war with them. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or a...
2022-Dec-09 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Just Limits On Revenge And Punishment - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines the duties that we owe towards those who do wrong, harm, or insult to us or those we care about. In Cicero's view, punishment, retribution, or vindication ought to be maintained within limits, or it becomes unjust. He focuses particularly on deterren...
2022-Dec-08 • 11 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Committing Injustice Through Inaction - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines whether a person can commit injustice through failing to act. Cicero's answer is that this is indeed possible, and he discusses several motives for this, including the seemingly positive one of being exclusively concerned with philosophy. To support ...
2022-Dec-07 • 11 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Should All Promises Be Kept - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines the question of whether all promises could be kept or whether justice allows of some exceptions to keeping faith (fides) or fulfilling promises. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct...
2022-Dec-05 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Temperance, The 4th Source Of The Right - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines temperance as one of the cardinal virtues, and as one of the main sources of our duties as human beings. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - ww...
2022-Dec-04 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Courage, The 3rd Source Of The Right - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines courage (fortitudo) as one of the cardinal virtues, and as one of the main sources of our duties as human beings. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so...
2022-Dec-03 • 9 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Justice, The 2nd Source Of The Right - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines what the virtue of Justice consists in, and how it is one of the four sources of the right and of our duties. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here ...
2022-Dec-02 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Wisdom, The 1st Source Of The Right - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines what the virtue of Wisdom consists in, and how it is one of the four sources of the right and of our duties. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here -...
2022-Dec-01 • 9 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Four Sources Of The Right - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines what he terms four sources of the right (honestum). These turn out to be the four cardinal virtues - Wisdom, Justice, Courage, and Temperance. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direc...
2022-Nov-30 • 12 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - Nature And Reason - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines the implications of nature endowing human beings with reason. The inclinations or instincts shared with other animals become transformed through human rationality. We are capable of developing the virtues - wisdom, justice, courage, and temperance. ...
2022-Nov-28 • 9 minutes
Cicero On Duties Book 1 - General Issues about Ethics and Duty - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero's work, On Duties (De Officiis), which presents a largely Stoic view on ethics, virtues, relationships, and duties or moral obligations Specifically it examines some of the key issues involved in the topic of duty, as the Stoics conceived of it. He distinguishes between the study of the final end for human beings, and the study of "rules for living". He also sets out five main inquiries concerning the Right ...
2022-Nov-26 • 14 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 10 - The Value Of Amusements - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 10, and examines his discussion bearing upon the value of amusements and enjoyments (paidia) - the sorts of pleasurable activities that people engage in and seek out. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypa...
2022-Nov-25 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 10 - Pleasures And Activities - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 10, and examines his discussion focused on the types of pleasures that arise from or through types of activities. We also discuss the deeper relation between pleasure and activity, particularly in terms of the faculties or capacities that allow that activity and corresponding pleasure - and Aristotle's view that pleas...
2022-Nov-22 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 10 - Differences Between Pleasures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 10, and examines his discussion about differences between various types of pleasures. In Aristotle's moral theory, pleasures vary in terms of the activities and capacities they involve, and this allows some pleasures to be distinguished as higher and lower, or more and less valuable. We can also make distinctions bet...
2022-Nov-21 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 10 - Is Pleasure Good? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 10, and examines his discussion concerning the issue of hedonism in moral theory - is pleasure The Good, or just one good among others, some of which may be higher goods than pleasure? To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so...
2022-Nov-20 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 10 - The Active Or Political Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 10, and examines his discussion of the value and nature of the "political" or active life, a life centered and oriented by engaging in virtuous activity. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO ...
2022-Nov-19 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 10 - The Contemplative Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 10, and examines his discussion of life centered around the good of contemplation (theoria). In this portion of his work, Aristotle clearly decides in favor of this as the best type of life for human beings to live. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a di...
2022-Nov-18 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 10 - Ethics And Education - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 10, and examines his discussion of the connections between education (understood in a broad sense) and ethics. Among the issues he examines are whether simply studying ethics (e.g. reading textbooks on the matter, or receiving moral training) is sufficient for moral development. Aristotle's view is that it remains in...
2022-Nov-16 • 12 minutes
Joseph Butler, Sermon 9 - God And Forgiveness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 18th century philosopher, theologian Joseph Butler's Sermon 9, Upon Forgiveness of Injuries and focuses on the example of Christ and teachings of Christianity about the need for human beings to forgive each other. He reminds his readers and listeners that a person who is unwilling to show another mercy cannot expect it from God To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal....
2022-Nov-15 • 12 minutes
Joseph Butler, Sermon 9 - Anger's Distorting Lens - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 18th century philosopher, theologian Joseph Butler's Sermon 9, Upon Forgiveness of Injuries and focuses on how the emotion of anger and our self-love tend to produce affective and cognitive distortions. He uses the metaphor of distorting lenses, which we can then adjust for when we realize these effects. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can fin...
2022-Nov-14 • 15 minutes
Joseph Butler, Sermon 9 - Love Of Enemies - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 18th century philosopher, theologian Joseph Butler's Sermon 9, Upon Forgiveness of Injuries and focuses on his analysis and interpretation of what Christian "forgiveness of injuries" and "love of enemies" involves and requires of a person To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtu...
2022-Nov-12 • 13 minutes
Joseph Butler, Sermon 9 - Problems With Retaliation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 18th century philosopher, theologian Joseph Butler's Sermon 9, Upon Forgiveness of Enemies and focuses on several problems that arise with the retaliation characteristic of the emotion of anger. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Read Butler's Sermons...
2022-Nov-11 • 12 minutes
Joseph Butler, Sermon 8 - Abuses Of Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 18th century philosopher, theologian Joseph Butler's Sermon 8, Upon Resentment and focuses on what he terms "abuses of anger", that is ways in which human beings go wrong in using the capacity for anger built into our nature. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/g...
2022-Nov-10 • 13 minutes
Joseph Butler, Sermon 8 - Settled Or Deliberate Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 18th century philosopher, theologian Joseph Butler's Sermon 8, Upon Resentment and focuses on the kind of anger that he calls "settled" or "deliberate", which has for its legitimate purpose punishing wrongdoing and defending society. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.co...
2022-Nov-09 • 11 minutes
Joseph Butler, Sermon 8 - Hasty Or Sudden Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 18th century philosopher, theologian Joseph Butler's Sermon 8, Upon Resentment and focuses on the kind of anger that he calls "hasty" or "sudden", which is more or less instinctual and which has for its purpose "self-defense". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/...
2022-Nov-08 • 15 minutes
Joseph Butler, Sermon 8 - Anger, Human Nature, And God - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 18th century philosopher, theologian Joseph Butler's Sermon 8, Upon Resentment and focuses on Butler's views on why God would implant the capacity for anger within human nature. Butler argues that anger - whether hasty or deliberate - can serve some legitimate purposes, namely self-defense and punishing or deterring wrongdoing. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal....
2022-Nov-06 • 16 minutes
Audre Lorde, The Uses Of Anger - Anger, Hatred, And Perspective - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century poet, philosopher, and activist Audre Lorde's essay, The Uses of Anger, and focuses on the difference between the emotions of anger and hatred, and the implications of this distinction for feeling and expressing anger against racism To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - ww...
2022-Nov-05 • 13 minutes
Audre Lorde, The Uses Of Anger - Productive Uses Of Anger - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century poet, philosopher, and activist Audre Lorde's essay, The Uses of Anger, and focuses on the legitimate and productive uses of anger that Lorde identifies in the piece To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn...
2022-Nov-04 • 18 minutes
Audre Lorde, The Uses Of Anger - Anger As Reponse To Racism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century poet, philosopher, and activist Audre Lorde's essay, The Uses of Anger, and focuses on the case she makes for anger being a legitimate and needed response to racism, and other forms of injustice or discrimination. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/...
2022-Nov-03 • 16 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Differences In Character - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his contention that our characters are determined by the proportions of basic motivations - egoism, malice, and compassion - that we have. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel -...
2022-Nov-02 • 18 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Compassion And Loving Kindness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his views on the relationship between the moral incentive of compassion (Mitleid) and the virtue of loving kindness or philanthropy (Menschenliebe). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTub...
2022-Nov-01 • 16 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Morality Of Lying - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his views on the positive or negative moral value of lying. Usually lyric is wrong, because it deprives someone of the truth and leads them to act upon false information. Schopenhauer argues, however, that in some cases, we are entirely justified in lying to another person To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a ...
2022-Oct-31 • 15 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Quantity, Justice, And Injustice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his views on justice and injustice in terms of quantity and quality. All justice or injustice is more or less equal in terms of quality, but can very considerably in terms of quantity. One of the main factors we have to consider, according to Schopenhauer is the amount of harm or benefit involved To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler ...
2022-Oct-30 • 20 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - The Concept Of Duty - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his views on what fulfilling one's moral duty (Pflicht) involves. Schopenhauer also criticizes the notion of imperfect duties, restricting the concept of duty to actions whose omission constitutes a wrong. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO Yo...
2022-Oct-28 • 15 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Wrongs, Rights, And Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his views on justice, in particular about wrongs or instances of injustice, which are a matter of harming another and can be understood positively, and rights of persons, which Schopenhauer asserts are understood negatively, in relation to wrongs. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ...
2022-Oct-27 • 16 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Compassion And Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his views on how the cardinal virtue of virtue stems from compassion (Mitleid), and what justice includes and extends to. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com...
2022-Oct-26 • 16 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Moral Worth And Compassion - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his views on compassion (Mitleid) as the only motivation for human actions that possesses genuine moral worth or value. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/us...
2022-Oct-24 • 19 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Antimoral Incentives And Motivation
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his views on what he calls "antimoral incentives" (antimoralische Triebfedern), which include Egoism and Malice. Egoism is characteristic of all animal and human life, and leads people to focus on their own well-being or weal. Malice is focused on harm or woe to others. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a di...
2022-Oct-23 • 15 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Three Fundamental Incentives - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on his discussion of what he considers to be the three fundamental incentives of human actions, namely Egoism, Malice, and Compassion. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.yo...
2022-Oct-22 • 20 minutes
Arthur Schopenhauer, On The Basis Of Morality - Skepticism About Genuine Morality
This lecture discusses the 19th century German Idealist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer's work, On The Basis of Morality, and focuses on the reasons he presents for people being skeptical about the existence of genuine morality. Schopenhauer does not think that these are ultimately correct or convincing, but he does view them as needed to be taken seriously. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.pay...
2022-Oct-22 • 11 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Three Fields (Topoi) Of Study
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s)in book 3 of his distinction between three key fields of study a person should engage in in order to become a genuinely good person, from the Stoic perspective. These fields have to do with desires and aversions, choices and duties, and assents. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.m...
2022-Oct-20 • 13 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Dealing With Appearances - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of about how we ought to deal with "appearances" or "impressions" (phantasiai) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Oct-19 • 14 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Dealing with Irrational Fears - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of how we ought to deal with irrational fears. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Oct-18 • 13 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Dealing With Illness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s)of how a Stoic ought to understand and act towards illnesses of the body. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Oct-17 • 13 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Evaluation Of Cynics and Their Lifestyle - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his evaluation of the Cynic way of life and philosophy. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Oct-15 • 10 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Criticisms Of Academic Skepticism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of his criticisms of the Academic (Skeptic) school of philosophy. This was one school of philosophy in ancient times that was a rival to the Stoic school, to which Epictetus belongs. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my mai...
2022-Oct-13 • 13 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Criticisms Of Epicureanism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of his criticisms of Epicurean philosophy. This was one school of philosophy in ancient times that was a rival to the Stoic school, to which Epictetus belongs. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www...
2022-Oct-12 • 14 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Askesis or Discipline - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of the training or discipline (askesis) involved in the Stoic life. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Oct-10 • 17 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Processes Of Practical Reasoning - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of the how practical reasoning works. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Oct-09 • 13 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Human Relations To The Divine - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of the relation between the divine and human beings To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Oct-08 • 9 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Contentiousness and Its Opposite - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of his discussions of contentiousness (a tendency towards conflicts with others) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Oct-07 • 11 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Stubbornness or Obstinacy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of a false sort of resoluteness - stubbornness or obstinacy. This is not a productive attitude or comportment, according to Epictetus and Stoic philosophy. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.you...
2022-Oct-05 • 12 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Cleanliness and Purification - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of bodily cleanliness and purification and their implications for moral life. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Oct-04 • 14 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Conditions For Genuine Friendship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of of the moral conditions required for genuine friendship (philia). In the view of Stoic philosophy, the fullest sort of friendship is really only possible for morally good, or virtuous, people. It is impossible to remain on a friendly basis with people who are morally bad, or vicious. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct con...
2022-Oct-03 • 14 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Personal Appearance And Beauty - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion of physical appearance, the bases of beauty, and what kind of attention a person ought to devote to "beautification" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 1400 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus...
2022-Oct-02 • 8 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - The Master Argument - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion about the "Master Argument" in book 2 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 1400 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Sep-30 • 13 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Solitude Or Forlornness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion about "forlornness" or "loneliness" (eremia) and how it differs from solitude or beings alone. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 1400 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.t...
2022-Sep-29 • 16 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Divine Providence - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of divine providence and human beings' place within the providential ordering To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 1400 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-Sep-27 • 10 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Authority And Moral Example - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion about moral example as set by those who are in positions of authority. He focuses on the case of an official who gets into a conflict with a crowd over which actor ought to get a prize. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 1400 philosophy videos in my mai...
2022-Sep-26 • 13 minutes
Epictetus, Discourses - Inconsistency And Moral Failings - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses, and focuses on his discussion(s) of where human beings tend to be morally inconsistent. He explores the motivations and priorities that are typically involved in moral failings. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 1400 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/us...
2022-Sep-24 • 17 minutes
Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method - Human, Animal, Machine - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes' work The Discourse on Method, and focuses on his discussion in part 5 of whether a machine could be developed that would pass for a human being. In the process of examining this question, he outlines how animals and machines differ from rational human beings. This involves the capacity to use language in a distinctly human manner. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct c...
2022-Sep-22 • 13 minutes
Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method - Truth Of Waking Thoughts - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes' work The Discourse on Method, and focuses on his discussion at the end of part 4 of whether we can trust the truth of our waking thoughts or not - and whether we can distinguish them apart from thoughts arising in dreams. The veracity and goodness of God plays a central role in Descartes' argument here, since that allows him to use the criterion of "clear and distinct" conceptions for the truth of our thoughts or ideas. To support my ...
2022-Sep-21 • 10 minutes
Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method - Being And Nothingness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes' work The Discourse on Method, and focuses on on his references in part 4 to being and nothingness (néant) in relation to truth and falsity. Descartes writes of our ideas - when they are clear and distinct - as being true and as participating in being. When our ideas are confused and obscure, they are false and - as he tells us - they "participate in nothingness." We can also think about our own metaphysical status as poised in some sense...
2022-Sep-20 • 14 minutes
Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method - The Existence and Nature Of God - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes' work The Discourse on Method, and focuses on his discussions of whether God's existence can be proven or not, what the nature of God is, and how God figures into Descartes' metaphysics. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/...
2022-Sep-19 • 12 minutes
Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method - What Can and Can't Be Doubted - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes' work The Discourse on Method, and focuses on his discussion in part 4 of what can be called into doubt and what cannot. Descartes argues that any ideas that come to us through the medium of the senses can be called into doubt. Going even further, even logical and geometrical/mathematical demonstrations can be doubted. And we cannot even be sure at any given time whether we are awake or dreaming. What cannot be doubted - for the person w...
2022-Sep-15 • 13 minutes
Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method - Reconstructing Foundations Of Knowledge - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes' work The Discourse on Method, and focuses on his discussion in part 2 of the work, where he sets out to reconstruct reliable foundations that will support his project of progressively developing genuine knowledge. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube cha...
2022-Sep-14 • 14 minutes
Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method - Maxims Of Provisional Morality - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes' work The Discourse on Method, and focuses on his discussion in part 3 of the maxims of a "provisional morality". These provide him with a way to order his life while he applies his method to develop genuine knowledge. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTub...
2022-Sep-13 • 13 minutes
Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method - The Four Rules Of Method - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes' work The Discourse on Method, and focuses on looking specifically at the Four Rules of Method Descartes sets out in part 2 of that work. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Descartes' Discourse on Metho...
2022-Sep-12 • 15 minutes
Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method - Academic Subjects & Foundations Of Knowledge
This lecture discusses the 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes' work The Discourse on Method, and focuses on his evaluation in book 1 of the academic subjects that he studied, and their capacities to provide us with genuine knowledge. He considers languages, history, literature, poetry, rhetoric, theology, philosophy, and mathematics. The only subject in which he is able to find certain and incontrovertible proofs - agreement among its practitioners - is mathematics. Philosophy up to his time - in ...
2022-Sep-11 • 8 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Understanding And Consideration - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion in book 6 bearing upon understanding (sunesis) and consideration (gnome), two other excellences of mind that provide a useful adjunct to prudence (phronesis) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can...
2022-Sep-10 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Excellence In Deliberation - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion in book 6 bearing upon excellence in deliberation (eubouleia), something that provides a useful adjunct to prudence (phronesis) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reas...
2022-Sep-09 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - The Natural Virtues - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion in book 6 about the "natural virtues" and their relationship with the intellectual virtue of prudence (phronesis). The natural virtues are dispositions or temperaments that a person has by virtue of their nature, i.e. without having had to acquire them through practice and habituation....
2022-Sep-08 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Wisdom, Prudence, and Virtue - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion in book 6 bearing upon the relationship between wisdom (sophia), prudence or practical wisdom (phronesis), and virtue (arete). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reaso...
2022-Sep-07 • 12 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Prudence (Phronēsis) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion of the intellectual virtue of Phronesis - translated as "prudence" or "practical wisdom". Prudence is one of the most important of the virtues or dispositions, and provides a key linkage between the various moral virtues, such as justice, courage, or temperance, and the intellect. It pr...
2022-Sep-06 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Skill Or Craft (Techne) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion of the intellectual virtue of Techne, which can be translated as "craft", "art", "skill" or "productive knowledge". Techne is an intellectual habitus or hexis through which a person is able to produce something in a deliberate manner. For this reason, Aristotle says that it bears upon...
2022-Sep-05 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Wisdom (Sophia) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion of the intellectual virtue of wisdom (sophia). According to Aristotle, wisdom is a composite or integration of two other intellectual virtues - nous (intelligence, intellect), which supplies a grasp of the first principles; and episteme (science, knowledge), which reasons using those fir...
2022-Sep-02 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Intellect (Nous) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion of the intellectual virtue of Nous, a term translated in a variety of ways - Intellect, Intelligence, Understanding, or Intuition being some of the more common. Nous, according to the anthropology/psychology of knowledge outlined in book 6, involves the grasp of first principles that oth...
2022-Aug-31 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Scientific Knowledge (Epistēmē) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion of the intellectual virtue of scientific or disciplinary knowledge (episteme) Scientific knowledge, according to Aristotle, bears upon matters whose principles do not change, or which are "from necessity". It works rationally from principles or starting points (archai), but does not sup...
2022-Aug-29 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Intellectual Virtues And Parts Of The Soul
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion of the intellectual virtues and the parts of the human soul in book 6. Aristotle distinguishes between two higher, intellectual or rational parts of the soul, one concerned with theoretical matters, which are from necessity and whose principles do not change, and the other with practical...
2022-Aug-27 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Desire, Intellect, And Action - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his discussion in book 6 bearing upon the relationship between desire or affectivity (orexis), intellect (nous), and human action. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at...
2022-Aug-26 • 11 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Book 6 - Truth In Theory And Action - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics book 6, and examines his distinction between truth in theory (or in contemplation, i.e. bearing upon theoretical or speculative matters) and truth in practice (or action, i.e. bearing upon practical or productive matters). In theoretical matters, truth has to do primarily with the correspondence between what is or is not ...
2022-Aug-24 • 15 minutes
Martin Heidegger, Plato's Doctrine Of Truth - The History Of Metaphysics - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his essay "Plato's Doctrine of Truth" found in the book, Pathmarks Heidegger views Plato's shift in the understanding of the essence of truth - from unhiddenness to correctness - as setting western thought on the path of metaphysics and humanism. He also briefly discusses how Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Rene Descartes, and Friedrich Nietzsche figure into this history of western metaphysics, further developing additional c...
2022-Aug-23 • 12 minutes
Martin Heidegger, Platos Doctrine Of Truth - The Form Of The Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his essay "Plato's Doctrine of Truth" found in the book, Pathmarks Here we examine the form of the good (idea tou agathou) found in Plato's allegory of the cave, and in his philosophy more broadly. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You ca...
2022-Aug-22 • 13 minutes
Martin Heidegger, Platos Doctrine Of Truth - Education And Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his essay "Plato's Doctrine of Truth" found in the book, Pathmarks Here we examine what Heidegger takes the Allegory of the Cave - found in book 7 of Plato's Republic - to be about. Plato construes the allegory as a teaching about the nature or essence of education (paideia), but Heidegger stresses that the allegory also represents a very important turning point in human conceptions about the essence of truth (aletheia...
2022-Aug-20 • 17 minutes
Martin Heidegger, Platos Doctrine Of Truth - Four Dwelling Places In The Allegory
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his essay "Plato's Doctrine of Truth" found in the book, Pathmarks Here we examine the four "dwelling places" Heidegger identifies in the Allegory of the Cave - found in book 7 of Plato's Republic. Each of the different dwelling places involves a different attitude towards truth or "unhiddness" (aletheia) in Heidegger's interpretation. The allegory charts the movement from one dwelling place to the next, and thereby from...
2022-Aug-19 • 13 minutes
Martin Heidegger, Platos Doctrine Of Truth - Truth As Aletheia And As Orthotes - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the 20th century philosopher, Martin Heidegger, and focuses on his essay "Plato's Doctrine of Truth" found in the book, Pathmarks Heidegger distinguishes between two basic conceptions of truth. The more primary - and older - conception of truth is of aletheia or unhiddenness. The newer conception of truth - associated with Plato - makes truth a matter of orthotes, or correctness. This correctness has to do with correspondence between the ideas or forms - which allow individual thin...
2022-Aug-18 • 15 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - The Cardinal Virtues - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion of the four cardinal virtues in chapter 35, these being wisdom or prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdW...
2022-Aug-17 • 14 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Envy, Vainglory, And Pride - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion in chapters 22, 23, 26, 27, and 34 of two of the capital or principal vices: vainglory and pride, and of another vice that is not included in the eight capital vices: envy To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Re...
2022-Aug-15 • 16 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Anger, Weariness, And Sorrow - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussions in chapters 24, 31, 32, and 33, in which he discusses three of the capital or principal vices, namely anger, sorrow, and weariness or acedia. With each of these he discusses how and why they are damaging to the human being, what other vices or sins they typically produce, and what remedies there are for them. To support my ongo...
2022-Aug-14 • 15 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Gluttony, Lust, And Avarice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussions mainly in chapters 28, 29, and 30 which center on three of the capital or principal vices, namely gluttony, lust/fornication, and greed. He discusses what each of these are, what other vices or sins they lead to, and what remedies there are for them To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If ...
2022-Aug-12 • 14 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - The Eight Capital Vices - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussions mainly in chapters 28, 29, and 30 which center on three of the capital or principal vices, namely gluttony, lust/fornication, and greed. He discusses what each of these are, what other vices or sins they lead to, and what remedies there are for them To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If ...
2022-Aug-09 • 14 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Fraud, Judges, And False Witnesses - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussions in chapters 19, 20, and 21, which focus on matters of justice and injustice, in particular not engaging in fraud or false witness, and the importance of judges rendering just verdicts. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - ww...
2022-Aug-07 • 16 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Humility, Compunction, And Fear Of God
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion of humility, compunction of heart, and fear of God in chapters 10, 11, and 15. Each of these has to do with adopting proper perspective on oneself in relation to God and to one's own accomplishments, capacities, and actions To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direc...
2022-Aug-05 • 14 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Fasting, Almsgiving, And Chastity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussions in chapters 16, 17, and 18. These chapters discuss the importance of fasting, giving alms, and chastity for Christian ethics and life. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.b...
2022-Aug-04 • 15 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Confessions, Repentance, And Conversion - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion in chapters 12, 13, and 14 of the importance and effects of confession, repentance, and conversion of the heart. For each of these, Alcuin makes a case why one should choose them in the present, instead of deferring them to later on. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to mak...
2022-Aug-03 • 15 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Virtues from Peace To Patience - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion in chapters 6-9 of peace, mercy, remission/forgiveness, and patience. All of these have to do with our involvements with other people, particularly those who wrong us or those who we could show mercy towards. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, ...
2022-Aug-02 • 15 minutes
Alcuin, On Virtues And Vices - Wisdom To Zeal Of Reading - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the medieval monk, theologian, philosopher, and educator Alcuin of York's work, On Virtues and Vices. Specifically it examines his discussion in chapters 1-5, beginning with wisdom, going through the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity, and then finishing with "zeal of reading" (the scriptures). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonI...
2022-Aug-01 • 11 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - The Myth Of The Afterlife - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines the account of the afterlife which Socrates presents as a "likely story," a myth. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM ...
2022-Jul-31 • 18 minutes
Plato's Phaedo - Does The Soul Wear Out - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines one of the important sets of arguments for and against the immortality of the soul, those having to do with the question whether the soul could wear out over time. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so her...
2022-Jul-30 • 16 minutes
Plato's Phaedo - Is The Soul A Harmony? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines one of the important sets of arguments for and against the immortality of the soul, those having to do with the question whether the soul could be a harmony of the body and its elements To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribut...
2022-Jul-29 • 9 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - The Argument From Opposites - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines an argument Socrates provides there for the immortality of the soul -- a metaphysical argument from opposites, and processes of change. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO -...
2022-Jul-28 • 10 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Recollection And The Forms - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines discussion about the Platonic forms and the doctrine of recollection in that dialogue. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYd...
2022-Jul-27 • 17 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Misology And Misanthopy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines Socrates' seeming digression about the dangers of "misology" (hatred of arguments or reasoning), understood by way of analogy to misanthropy. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reas...
2022-Jul-25 • 13 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Suicide And Readiness For Death - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines Socrates' discussion of whether it is morally right or wrong to commit suicide -- a pressing issue, given that his impending execution requires him to drink poisonous hemlock. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you c...
2022-Jul-22 • 9 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - The Body As Prison To The Soul - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines Socrates' contention that the body is a prison for the soul, contaminating it with materiality To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.co...
2022-Jul-21 • 14 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Philosophical Temperance And Courage - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines Socrates' discussion of the nature of the virtues of temperance and courage. He takes these virtues to be genuine only in the case of the philosopher, who have the right motivations and for whom these virtues are structured by wisdom To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com...
2022-Jul-19 • 11 minutes
Plato, The Phaedo - Philosophy As Preparation For Death - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Phaedo, which is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. Specifically it examines the meaning of Socrates' assertion that "Philosophy is a preparation for death" To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM Yo...
2022-Jul-18 • 16 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - The Unity Of Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussions in chapter 13 of the unity of Truth underlying the multiple modes of truth analyzed throughout the work To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so...
2022-Jul-17 • 19 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Defining Justice In The Will - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion of justice in the will as truth or rectitude. The specifically moral conception of justice that deserves praise or blame is a matter of willing what one ought, because one ought, and in order to maintain that very rectitude, which allows An...
2022-Jul-15 • 13 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Actions As Significative Of Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 9 of how actions - including those of willing and thinking - are also significative, and thereby have an additional manner of being truthful or false/lying To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadl...
2022-Jul-14 • 11 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Truth In The Being Of Things And Supreme Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussions in chapter 7 and 10 of the supreme truth, and of the truth in the being (essentia) or existence (existentia) of things, including the causal relations between these and truth in other things. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon s...
2022-Jul-13 • 10 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Truth In The Senses And Judgement - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 6 of truth and falsity "in the exterior senses". Anselm's view is that in cases when we might say that the senses are deceiving us, it is really the judgement (opinio) of the mind that is deceiving us. To support my ongoing work...
2022-Jul-12 • 18 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Truth In The Will And Action - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on truth and falsity as they exist in the will and in action. This involves a normativity built into and evaluating both of them, a "what one ought to do" or a "what it was made for". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadl...
2022-Jul-11 • 13 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Truth In Signification And Thought - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on his discussions of truth in signification or statement, and truth in thought or judgement found in chapters 2 and 3 of the work. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ...
2022-Jul-10 • 12 minutes
Anselm Of Canterbury, On Truth - Multiple Modes Of Truth - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the Medieval philosopher, theologian, and Benedictine monk Anselm of Canterbury's dialogue, On Truth (the first work in a trilogy including On Freedom of Choice and On The Fall of the Devil) It focuses specifically on the multiple modes of truth that Anselm and his student will range over and analyze in their dialogue. These include truth in signification, thought, the will, action, the being of things, and the senses, and the Supreme Truth. To support my ongoing wor...
2022-Jul-08 • 20 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Human Happiness - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 10 that centers upon the classic question of what human happiness consists in. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosop...
2022-Jul-06 • 11 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Memory And The Emotions - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion of how emotions figure into human memory in book 10. It also discusses the Stoic theory of the emotions or passions, which Augustine qualifiedly incorporates To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACo...
2022-Jul-05 • 13 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - The Power Of Memory - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 10 of the power, capacity, and range of human memory. He also examines the different ways in which things are retained in memory. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacof...
2022-Jul-03 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Why Engage In Confessions? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his book 10 discussion centering on why he has been engaging in the process of confessions, which seems to be a reflective practice of speaking to God. He maintains that they have value not only for himself but also for readers. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you ...
2022-Jul-01 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - The Divided Will - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion of the ways in which a person's will can be divided between different objects and motives, so that, even though there is one single faculty of will, a person can experience wanting to do or choose something and nevertheless find him or herself choosing or doing something else. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patre...
2022-Jun-29 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Ponticianus' Story And Self-Examination - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on the story that Ponticanius relates of two of his friends who were converted from secular to monastic life though their reading of the Life of St. Anthony, and the effects that this story has on Augustine, who is provoked to self-examination as he listens. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make...
2022-Jun-28 • 16 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Following Or Breaking God's Laws - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion about how to understand what seems to be contradictions in Jewish and Christian scriptures about what it is that God requires or commands of people To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www...
2022-Jun-26 • 10 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Getting Metaphysics of God And Evil Wrong - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion of the nature of evil, and the problem of understanding how, given the existence of God, there could be evil in the universe in book 7. By Augustine's own admission, he was approaching the question of the origin or cause of evil in some mistaken ways, and he reviews both the mistaken attempts and some of the assumptions underlying them, ...
2022-Jun-25 • 18 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Finding Wisdom In Scriptures - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his changing viewpoint towards Jewish and Christian sacred scriptures. At first, Augustine viewed them as crude and childish, but over time came to view them as containing considerable wisdom To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reas...
2022-Jun-23 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Philosophy And Christianity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on how Augustine sought out wisdom from the resources ancient pagan philosophy had to offer situating them later within a Christian framework that partly overlapped with those resources but also surpassed them. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www....
2022-Jun-22 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Manicheism And Faustus - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his engagement with the Gnostic religion of Manichaeism, his dissatisfaction with the answers to important philosophical questions that they provided, and his disappointed hopes in their bishop Faustus To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypa...
2022-Jun-20 • 18 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Seeking Wisdom And Answers - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on how, once his desire for wisdom was aroused by reading Cicero's work, the Hortentius, Augustine sought out wisdom, what sources of possible wisdom he examined, and where he was able to find it To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reaso...
2022-Jun-19 • 10 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - The Pear Tree And Evil - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his self-examination as he recalls the incident of the Pear Tree in book 2. This leads Augustine to reflect upon the nature of human motivation - particularly the motivations that explain wrong or evil actions and choices. In trying to get to the roots of the Pear Tree incident, he finds that his action ultimately had to be explained by saying that he ...
2022-Jun-18 • 20 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Love, Loss, And Grief - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his experience with and reflections upon the grief he felt upon the death of a close friend. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy video...
2022-Jun-17 • 15 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Loving Shows And The Theater - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his discussion starting in book 3 of his love for shows and spectacles, and his ruminations on what it is that he loves about them, given that the matters depicted are the miseries of other people. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/...
2022-Jun-16 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Study And Learning In Boyhood - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on his education or miseducation during his childhood. Augustine discusses the lessons he learned, many of which were not the most productive To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quY...
2022-Jun-15 • 15 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - From Infancy To Speech - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on book 1, where Augustine describes and examines his infancy and the transition from infancy to speech. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philoso...
2022-Jun-14 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, Confessions - Where Can God Be? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The Confessions. It focuses specifically on the questions that he begins the work by asking himself (and God), having to do with where God can be, and whether or not God can be contained in any place or person. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee ...
2022-Jun-13 • 12 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 7 - The Philosopher's Return To The Cave - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 7. Specifically it examines his famous Allegory of the Cave set out early in book 7. After being liberated from the cave and gradually habituated to see real things in daylight, and eventually the source of light in the sun, as opposed to the shadows of the cave, the prisoner determines to return to the cave out of a sense of pity or compassion for his fellow prisoners. Because his eyes are now hab...
2022-Jun-12 • 15 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 7 - The Allegory Of The Cave - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 7. Specifically it examines his famous Allegory of the Cave set out early in book 7. In this allegory, prisoners are confined within an underground dwelling, and believe that reality is the images and sounds projected in front of them. One of the prisoners is freed of his chains and brought up into the sunlit world above. After habituation, he becomes able to fully use his power of sight to see re...
2022-Jun-10 • 13 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 6 - The Likeness Between The Sun And The Good - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 6. Specifically it examines his discussion in the end of book 6 about the likeness or analogy between the Form of the Good and the Sun, which he calls the "offspring" of the Good. Both the Good and the Sun make it possible for the human being to apprehend matters, in the case of the Sun, for vision to apprehend visible objects, in the case of the Good, for the soul to recognize and know the Forms. ...
2022-Jun-09 • 19 minutes
Plato, Republic Book 6 - The Divided Line, Truth, And The Faculties - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Plato's work, The Republic, in particular book 6. Specifically it examines his discussion in the end of book 6 of the "Divided Line". This analogy is used to arrange the matters human beings can grasp and (in some cases) develop knowledge about, ranging from those that posses the least truth and being to those that possess the most. The four parts of the line include: 1. he domain of shadows, reflections, and other things of that sort; 2. th...
2022-Jun-08 • 20 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Diogenes' Frankness Of Speech - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the depiction of the Cynic philosopher Diogenes within Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers, book 6 It focuses specifically on Diogenes' frankness of speech (parrhesia), its purpose and value, with reference to a lot of examples. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.co...
2022-Jun-07 • 15 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Diogenes' Cynical Mode Of Life - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the depiction of the Cynic philosopher Diogenes within Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers, book 6 It focuses specifically on Diogenes' ways of living, thinking, and interacting with others and the world, embodying his Cynic moral philosophy To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - w...
2022-Jun-07 • 14 minutes
Diogenes Laertes - Antisthenes On Virtue And Wisdom - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the depiction of the Cynic philosopher Antisthenes within Diogenes Laertes' Lives of the Philosophers, book 6 It focuses specifically on what Antisthenes' beliefs, teachings, and actions bearing upon the virtues and wisdom. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisad...
2022-Jun-05 • 14 minutes
Xenophon, Symposium - Antisthenes On Wealth, Need, And Satisfaction - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient historian, military commander, and student of philosophy, Xenophon's Symposium It focuses specifically on the discourses that Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic school gives in that work, in which he details his beliefs and way of life. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel -...
2022-Jun-03 • 18 minutes
Lucian of Samosata, The Cynic - Need, Sufficiency, And Satisfaction
This lecture discusses the ancient writer and satirist Lucian of Samosata's short work, The Cynic. It focuses specifically on his presentation of arguments for and against the Cynic school of philosophy, allowing the Cynic to make his case to the narrator and the reader To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - ww...
2022-Jun-02 • 14 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Willing What God Wills - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions of the interrelation between the human and the divine, the divine "will", and willing what God or the divine wills. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadle...
2022-Jun-01 • 15 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - The Profession Of A Stoic Philosopher - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions bearing on the profession of the Stoic philosopher. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-May-31 • 14 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Social Intercourse And Engagements - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions of interacting with people in social settings and relations. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKng
2022-May-29 • 14 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Not Wanting Pity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions stemming from the topic of pity and people who become upset at being pitied (or imagining themselves being pitied) by others To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user...
2022-May-27 • 15 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Lust And Adultery - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions about sexual desire or lust, and in particular the issue of adultery To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NO...
2022-May-26 • 14 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Attention Or Mindfulness (Prosokhē) - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions of prosokhes - mindfulness or attention/attentiveness - in book 4 To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn.to/2NOiKn...
2022-May-24 • 11 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Stoic Cosmopolitanism - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions of the conception of Cosmopolitanism, that is, being a citizen of the world or the universe. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' ...
2022-May-23 • 11 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - False Peace And Leisure As Ends - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions about making peace or leisure the end of one's choices in ways that compromise other key values. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictet...
2022-May-23 • 10 minutes
Epictetus Discourses - Socrates As A Stoic Sage - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses the ancient Stoic philosopher Epictetus' work, the Discourses. It focuses specifically on his discussions bearing on Socrates as a sage (i.e. wise person) and exemplar for Stoicism. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Epictetus' Discourses - amzn...
2022-May-21 • 13 minutes
Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, Ch. 11 - Genes And Memes
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th-21st century evolutionary biologist and essayist Richard Dawkins' book The Selfish Gene. It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 11 focused on the analogies and relations between genes and memes To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy v...
2022-May-20 • 17 minutes
Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, Ch. 11 - The Notion Of A Meme
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th-21st century evolutionary biologist and essayist Richard Dawkins' book The Selfish Gene. It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 11 focused on what a "meme" is as a unit of cultural transmission, replication, and evolution. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You ca...
2022-May-19 • 14 minutes
Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, Ch. 11 - Darwinism And Cultural Transmission
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 20th-21st century evolutionary biologist and essayist Richard Dawkins' book The Selfish Gene. It focuses specifically on his discussion in chapter 11 focused on the importance of culture for human beings, and how cultural transmission and evolution takes place To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.co...
2022-May-18 • 14 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - Peace As Universally Desired - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 19 focused on a universal desire for peace in living beings, specifically among human beings. Augustine views peace as one dimension of the supreme good or final end for human beings, and even the deficient, imperfect, corrupt modes of peace that human beings do desire are in some respect good. To support my ongoing work, go to ...
2022-May-16 • 15 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - The Four Circles Of Relationship - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 19 arguing that we do not find any lasting peace or happiness in this life. In the course of this discussion, he sets out four concentric circles of relationships that we human being can have. The first of these is most intimate, and includes the family or household, and our friendships. The second of these is our political or ...
2022-May-15 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - Why Virtues Are Not The Supreme Good
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 19 bearing on whether the virtues - prudence, justice, courage, and temperance - are the supreme good for human beings or whether they are instead something that can lead us towards the supreme good and happiness. In examining this, Augustine is criticizing ancient pagan virtue ethics, in particular those of the Stoics, but al...
2022-May-14 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - The Supreme Good And The Present Life
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion in book 19 focused on the present life's prospects for human happiness and enjoying the supreme good or final end for human beings. As rational beings, our nature and our desires cannot be entirely fulfilled by the things and goods of this life. Augustine examines this matter in terms of the vulnerability of the body and the soul, the s...
2022-May-13 • 12 minutes
Augustine Of Hippo, City Of God Book 19 - Philosophical Sects And The Supreme Good
This lecture discusses key ideas from the early medieval philosopher and theologian, Augustine of Hippo's work, The City of God. It focuses specifically on his discussion at the beginning of book 19, setting out a vast number of philosophical "sects", based on a variety of distinctions. This classification is taken from Marcus Varro's now-lost work, De Philosophia, and has to do with what each sect thinks human beings desire, how they vide virtue, whether they adopt stances from Academic skepticism or Cyn...
2022-May-11 • 12 minutes
Prudentius, Psychomachia - The Virtues Of Faith And Concord - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the early Medieval poet Prudentius, the Psychomachia, or the battle for the soul It focuses specifically on the contributions made near the end of the poem by two virtues in particular, Faith and Concord. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy v...
2022-May-10 • 14 minutes
Prudentius, Psychomachia - Combatting Luxury And Greed - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the early Medieval poet Prudentius, the Psychomachia, or the battle for the soul It focuses specifically on the more difficult battles against two vices in particular - Luxury/Indulgence (Luxuria) and Greed (Avaritia) - which seem to be winning the battle for the vices over the virtues. They are defeated by Sobriety (Sobrietas) and by a combination of Reason (Ratio) and Good Works (Operatio) To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.c...
2022-May-07 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Can One Do Injustice To Oneself? - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the question he poses and resolves there: is it possible for a person to be unjust, or to do injustice, to him or herself? To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACo...
2022-May-06 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Justice As Equity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the sort of justice which he picks out as "equity" or "equitableness", which he notes is a kind of correction of legal justice. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyM...
2022-May-05 • 9 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Particular Justice In Reciprocity - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and and examines the particular sort of justice which he picks out as "reciprocity," (in Greek, antipeponthos -- "suffering in return"). This includes not only "poetic justice," i.e. when a person suffers what they have inflicted upon others, but also economic exchange of goods and services. To support my ongoing wo...
2022-May-04 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Particular Justice In Rectification - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the sort of particular justice which he picks out as "justice in rectification" or "rectificatory justice" -- how justice is restored when one party has gotten (or taken) too much, and the other party too little. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to...
2022-May-02 • 15 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Particular Justice In Distribution - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the sort of particular justice which he picks out as "justice in distribution," also called "commutative" or "distributive justice". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at...
2022-May-01 • 10 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Legal Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, and examines the sort of justice which he picks out as "legal justice" or "law-abidingness". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You c...
2022-Apr-30 • 13 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Justice As Complete Virtue - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, the sort of justice which he picks out as "complete virtue", as virtue practiced not just in relation to oneself, but in relation to others (pros allon). To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonI...
2022-Apr-28 • 21 minutes
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics Bk 5 - Six Types Of Justice - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the ancient philosopher Aristotle's work of moral theory, the Nicomachean Ethics. Specifically it focuses focuses on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics bk 5, where Aristotle says that "justice is an equivocal term", meaning that there are multiple senses of the term "justice". A careful analysis of Aristotle's text reveals that there are actually six main conceptions of justice discussed by him there: legal justice, justice as complete virtue, distributive justice, cor...
2022-Apr-27 • 12 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork - The Limits Of Practical Philosophy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work of ethics, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically it examines his discussion of the limits of practical philosophy - and the practical use of reason - towards the end of that work. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM Y...
2022-Apr-23 • 11 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork - The Dialectic Of Reason - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work of ethics, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically it examines his discussion of what he terms a "dialectic" of reason near the end of the work. this dialectic has to do with the freedom of the human rational will - which is an idea of reason - and the law-bound necessity of nature - which is a concept of the understanding. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler ...
2022-Apr-22 • 10 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork - Freedom Of The Will - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work of ethics, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically it examines Kant's discussion of the freedom of the will. In his view, the will is a type of causality that belongs to living rational beings, and freedom is a property of that causality, involving being able to determine or effect matters independently of other causes and physical (or psycho-social) laws. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreo...
2022-Apr-21 • 10 minutes
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork - The 3rd Formulation Of The Categorical Imperative - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant's work of ethics, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically it examines To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee - www.buymeacoffee.com/A4quYdWoM You can find over 2000 philosophy videos in my main YouTube channel - www.youtube.com/user/gbisadler Purchase Kant's G...
2022-Apr-20 • 16 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Power Relations And Strategy - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on the section "Relations of Power and Relations of Strategy", in which Foucault distinguishes three different senses of the term "strategy" and discusses how they apply to power relations To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/Reason...
2022-Apr-19 • 17 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Specificity Of Power Relations - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on the section "What Constitutes The Specificity Of Power Relations?" in which Foucault notes that power relations, while they may include violence or consent, are really something different, involving "action upon action", or "acting upon the possibilities of action of other people". To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon....
2022-Apr-18 • 16 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - The How Of Power Relations - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on why he thinks that it is important to focus on the "How" of power relations, rather than just the "What" and the "Why". He also distinguishes objective capacities from communicative/sign systems, and power relations, and discusses how they interconnect with each other. He finishes with the notion of "disciplines" as blocks of these three, and what...
2022-Apr-16 • 20 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Power Relations And Resistance - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on his decision to focus upon human beings' resistances to power as ways to understand better how power works and how power-relations are constituted and structured. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here - www.paypal.me/ReasonIO - or at BuyMeACoffee...
2022-Apr-14 • 17 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Pastoral Power - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on he type of power relations that he calls "pastoral power", including four main characteristics of it: orientation towards salvation; oblative and sacrificial exercise of power; focus upon the individual; aiming at to knowledge of the soul. Foucault also discusses how pastoral power shifts out of ecclesial settings into political and secular setti...
2022-Apr-13 • 16 minutes
Michel Foucault, The Subject And Power - Domination, Exploitation, Subjection - Sadler's Lectures
This lecture discusses key ideas from the work of the 20th century philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, "The Subject and Power" It focuses specifically on the distinction he makes between three types of power relations, those of domination, exploitation, and subjection. These intersect with each other, and are typically not found in isolation from each other. To support my ongoing work, go to my Patreon site - www.patreon.com/sadler If you'd like to make a direct contribution, you can do so here ...